A solar-powered pump is a
A photovoltaic solar powered pump system has three parts:
The solar panels make up most (up to 80%) of the systems cost.[
The purpose of the controller is twofold. Firstly, it matches the output power that the pump receives with the input power available from the solar panels. Secondly, a controller usually provides a low voltage protection, whereby the system is switched off, if the voltage is too low or too high for the operating voltage range of the pump. This increases the lifetime of the pump thus reducing the need for maintenance. Other ancillary functions include automatically shutting down the system when water source level is low or when the storage tank is full, regulating water output pressure, blending power input between the solar panels and an alternate power source such as the grid or a petrol generator, and remotely monitoring and managing the system through an online portal offered as a cloud service by the manufacturer.
Voltage of the solar pump motors can be AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current). Direct current motors are used for small to medium applications up to about 4 kW rating, and are suitable for applications such as garden fountains, landscaping, drinking water for livestock, or small irrigation projects. Since DC systems tend to have overall higher efficiency levels than AC pumps of a similar size, the costs are reduced as smaller solar panels can be used.
Finally, if an alternating current solar pump is used, an