A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups.

Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology.

More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.

Etymology and usage

A half-section of the 12th-century South Tang Dynasty version of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu Hongzhong. The painting portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, and hosts all in a single social environment. It serves as an in-depth look into the Chinese social structure of the time.

The term "society" came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun socius ("comrade, friend, ally"; adjectival form socialis) used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity (also: "society in general", "society at large", etc.), although those who are unfriendly or uncivil to the remainder of society in this sense may be deemed to be "antisocial". However, the Scottish economist, Adam Smith taught instead that a society "may subsist among different men, as among different merchants, from a sense of its utility without any mutual love or affection, if only they refrain from doing injury to each other."[1]

Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language, or hierarchical structure.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Gemeenskap
አማርኛ: ኅብረተሰብ
العربية: مجتمع
aragonés: Sociedat
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܢܫܐ
asturianu: Sociedá
Avañe'ẽ: Avano'õ
azərbaycanca: Cəmiyyət
تۆرکجه: جامیعه
বাংলা: সমাজ
Bân-lâm-gú: Siā-hōe
башҡортса: Йәмғиәт
беларуская: Грамадства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Грамадзтва
भोजपुरी: समाज
български: Общество
bosanski: Društvo
brezhoneg: Kevredigezh
буряад: Ниигэм
català: Societat
Чӑвашла: Пĕрлĕх
Cebuano: Katilingban
čeština: Společnost
chiShona: Chita
Cymraeg: Cymdeithas
dansk: Samfund
eesti: Ühiskond
Ελληνικά: Κοινωνία
español: Sociedad
Esperanto: Socio
estremeñu: Sociedá
euskara: Gizarte
فارسی: جامعه
Fiji Hindi: Samaj
galego: Sociedade
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sa-fi
한국어: 사회
हिन्दी: समाज
hrvatski: Društvo
Ido: Socio
Igbo: Ȯgbà
Ilokano: Kagimongan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সমাজ
Bahasa Indonesia: Masyarakat
interlingua: Societate
isiXhosa: Intlalo
íslenska: Þjóðfélag
Basa Jawa: Bebrayan
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಮಾಜ
къарачай-малкъар: Джамагъат
ქართული: საზოგადოება
қазақша: Қоғам
Kiswahili: Jamii
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sosyete
kurdî: Civak
Кыргызча: Коом
latviešu: Sabiedrība
lietuvių: Visuomenė
Limburgs: Maotsjappie
Livvinkarjala: Yhteskundu
la .lojban.: remce'u
magyar: Társadalom
македонски: Општество
Malagasy: Fiaraha-monina
മലയാളം: സമൂഹം
მარგალური: ჯარალუა
Bahasa Melayu: Masyarakat
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Siâ-huôi
Mirandés: Sociadade
монгол: Нийгэм
日本語: 社会
нохчийн: Юкъаралла
Nordfriisk: Selskap
norsk: Samfunn
norsk nynorsk: Samfunn
occitan: Societat
олык марий: Мер
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Jamiyat
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਮਾਜ
پنجابی: سوسائیٹی
پښتو: ټولنه
Patois: Sasayati
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សង្គម
Piemontèis: Società
português: Sociedade
Runa Simi: Waki
русский: Общество
саха тыла: Дьон-сэргэ
Scots: Society
shqip: Shoqëria
sicilianu: Sucitati
සිංහල: සමාජය
Simple English: Society
سنڌي: سماج
slovenščina: Družba
کوردی: کۆمەڵگە
српски / srpski: Друштво
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Društvo
Tagalog: Lipunan
தமிழ்: சமூகம்
татарча/tatarça: Җәмгыять
ไทย: สังคม
тоҷикӣ: Ҷaмъият
Türkçe: Toplum
українська: Суспільство
اردو: سماج
vepsän kel’: Kund
Tiếng Việt: Xã hội
Võro: Ütiskund
Winaray: Katiringban
吴语: 社會
Yorùbá: Àwùjọ
粵語: 社會
žemaitėška: Vėsuomenė
中文: 社会
ГӀалгӀай: Юкъарле
Lingua Franca Nova: Sosia