Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija [a]
Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија [b]
Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija [c]
Bratstvo i jedinstvo
"Brotherhood and unity"
Hej, Slaveni
Хеј, Словени
"Hey, Slavs"
Yugoslavia in 1989
Capital Belgrade
Languages Serbo-Croatian [d]
Slovene [e]
Macedonian [f]
Demonym Yugoslav
Government Titoist federal one-party socialist republic
 •  1945–1953 Ivan Ribar (first)
 •  1953–1980 Josip Broz Tito
 •  1991 Stjepan Mesić (last)
Prime Minister
 •  1945–1963 Josip Broz Tito (first)
 •  1989–1991 Ante Marković (last)
General Secretary
 •  1945–1980 Josip Broz Tito (first)
 •  1989–1990 Milan Pančevski (last)
Legislature Federal Assembly
 •  Upper house Chamber of Republics
 •  Lower house Federal Chamber
Historical era Cold War
 •  AVNOJ 26 November 1942
 •  Admitted to the United Nations 24 October 1945
 •  Proclamation 29 November 1945
 •  Constitution adopted 31 January 1946
 •  Balkan Pact signed 28 February 1953
 •  Death of Josip Broz Tito 4 May 1980
 •  Disintegration 27 April 1992
 •  1991 255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
 •  1991 est. 23,229,846 
     Density 91/km2 (235/sq mi)
Currency Yugoslav dinar
Internet TLD .yu
Calling code +38
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Free Territory of Trieste
Bosnia and Herzegovina
FR Yugoslavia
a. ^ Full name in the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages, written in the Latin alphabet (see Name section for details).
b. ^ Full name in Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, written in Cyrillic.
c. ^ Full name in the Slovene language (Slovene uses Latin only).
d. ^ There was no de jure official language at the federal level, [1] [2] [3] but Serbo-Croatian was de facto official. It was also legally the official language in the federal republics of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro. [1] [2]
e. ^ Official in Slovenia.
f. ^ Official in Macedonia.

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was the Yugoslav state in southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east and Albania and Greece to the south.

It was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

The SFRY traces back to 26 November 1942 when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposal of King Peter II thus ending the monarchy. The new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, and it became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, rising ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s led to dissidence among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation also failed and led to recognition of their independence by some European states in 1991. This led to the federation collapsing along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. Two of its republics, Serbia and Montenegro, remained within the reconstituted Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but the union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" (bivša Jugoslavija/бивша Југославија) is now commonly used retrospectively.

The SFR Yugoslavia maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of the UN, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat and BTWC.


The name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made-up of jug (with the "j" pronounced like an English "y") and slavija. The Slavic word jug means "south", while slavija ("Slavia") denotes a "land of the Slavs". Thus, a translation of "Jugoslavija" would be "South-Slavia" or "Land of the South Slavs". The term is intended to denote the lands occupied by the six South Slavic nations: Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks (or " Muslims"), Montenegrins, Slovenes, and Macedonians. The full official name of the federation varied significantly between 1945 and 1992. [4]

Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the other three nations not having been recognized yet). In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades (even before the country was formed)—the official name of the state. [4] After the Kingdom was occupied during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia or DFY) in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country. The name deliberately left the republic-or- kingdom question open.

In 1945, King Peter II was officially deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, and accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia or FPRY), with the constitution coming into force in 1946. [5] In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced. The state is most commonly referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene slightly differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist". The names are as follows:

Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were often used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most commonly known simply as Yugoslavia. The most common abbreviation is SFRY (SFRJ), though SFR Yugoslavia was also used in an official capacity, particularly by the media.

Other Languages
euskara: Jugoslavia
lietuvių: Jugoslavija
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija