Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(1945–1963)
Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija[a]
Федеративна Народна Република Југославија[b]
Federativna ljudska republika Jugoslavija[c]

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1963–1992)

Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija[a]
Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија[b]
Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija[c]
1945–1992
Motto: Bratstvo i jedinstvo
Братство и јединство
"Brotherhood and unity"
Anthem: "Hej, Slaveni"
Хеј, Словени
"Hey, Slavs"
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1989
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1989
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
Official languagesSerbo-Croatian[d]
Slovene[e]
Macedonian[f]
Official scriptCyrillic  • Latin
Ethnic groups
(1981)
Demonym(s)Yugoslav
Yugoslavian
GovernmentFederal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic (1945–1948)
Federal Titoist one-party socialist republic (1948–1990)
Federal parliamentary constitutional republic (1990–1992)
President 
• 1945–1953
Ivan Ribar (first)
• 1953–1980
Josip Broz Tito
• 1991
Stjepan Mesić (last)
Prime Minister 
• 1945–1963
Josip Broz Tito (first)
• 1989–1991
Ante Marković (last)
General Secretary 
• 1945–1980
Josip Broz Tito (first)
• 1989–1990
Milan Pančevski (last)
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Chamber of Republics
Federal Chamber
Historical eraCold War
• AVNOJ
26 November 1942
29 November 1945
31 January 1946
1948
4 May 1980
27 April 1992
Area
• Total
255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
Population
• 1991 estimate
23,229,846
HDI (1990)Steady 0.913[1]
very high · 31st
CurrencyYugoslav dinar (YUD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time (CET))
Driving sideright
Calling code38
Internet TLD.yu
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
Free Territory of Trieste
Croatia
Slovenia
Republic of Macedonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  1. ^ Full name in the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages, written in the Latin alphabet (see Name section for details).
  2. ^ Full name in Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, written in Cyrillic.
  3. ^ Full name in the Slovene language (Slovene uses Latin only).
  4. ^ There was no de jure official language at the federal level,[2][3][4] but Serbo-Croatian was de facto official and the only language spoken and taught throughout the country. However, it was the official language in the federal republics of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.[2][3]
  5. ^ Official in Slovenia.
  6. ^ Official in Macedonia.

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.

It was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

The SFRY traces to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after King Peter II deposed, thus ending the monarchy. Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism.

The SFR Yugoslavia maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat, and BTWC.

Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment[5] and inflation.[6] The economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s and early 1990s; dissidence resulted among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics.

With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation also failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence. The federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. Two of its republics, Serbia and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" (bivša Jugoslavija/бивша Југославија) is now commonly used retrospectively.

Name

The name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug ('yug') (with the 'j' pronounced like an English 'y') and slavija. The Slavic word jug means 'south', while slavija ("Slavia") denotes a 'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be 'South-Slavia' or 'Land of the South Slavs'. The full official name of the federation varied significantly between 1945 and 1992.[7]

Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades (even before the country was formed)—the official name of the state.[7] After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia or DFY) in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country. The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open.

In 1945, King Peter II was officially deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, and accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia or FPRY), with the constitution coming into force in 1946.[8] In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced. The state is most commonly referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene slightly differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist". The names are as follows:

Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were often used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most commonly known simply as Yugoslavia. The most common abbreviation is SFRY (SFRJ), though SFR Yugoslavia was also used in an official capacity, particularly by the media.

Other Languages
lietuvių: Jugoslavija
Lingua Franca Nova: Iugoslavia
Nordfriisk: Jugoslaawien
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija