Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1963)

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992)
Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija[a]
Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија[b]
Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija[c]
1945–1992
Motto
Bratstvo i jedinstvo
"Brotherhood and unity"
Anthem
Hej, Slaveni
Хеј, Словени
"Hey, Slavs"
Yugoslavia in 1989
CapitalBelgrade
LanguagesSerbo-Croatian[d]
Slovene[e]
Macedonian[f]
DemonymYugoslav or Yugoslavian
GovernmentFederal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic (1945–48)
Federal Titoist one-party socialist republic (1948–92)
President
 • 1945–1953Ivan Ribar (first)
 • 1953–1980Josip Broz Tito
 • 1991Stjepan Mesić (last)
Prime Minister
 • 1945–1963Josip Broz Tito (first)
 • 1989–1991Ante Marković (last)
General Secretary
 • 1945–1980Josip Broz Tito (first)
 • 1989–1990Milan Pančevski (last)
LegislatureFederal Assembly
 • Upper houseChamber of Republics
 • Lower houseFederal Chamber
Historical eraCold War
 • AVNOJ26 November 1942
 • Admitted to the United Nations24 October 1945
 • Proclamation29 November 1945
 • Constitution adopted31 January 1946
 • Balkan Pact signed28 February 1953
 • Death of Josip Broz Tito4 May 1980
 • Disintegration27 April 1992
Area
 • 1991255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
Population
 • 1991 est.23,229,846 
     Density91/km2 (235/sq mi)
CurrencyYugoslav dinar
Internet TLD.yu
Calling code+38
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Free Territory of Trieste
Croatia
Slovenia
Macedonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
FR Yugoslavia
Today part of
a.^ Full name in the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages, written in the Latin alphabet (see Name section for details).
b.^ Full name in Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, written in Cyrillic.
c.^ Full name in the Slovene language (Slovene uses Latin only).
d.^ There was no de jure official language at the federal level,[1][2][3] but Serbo-Croatian was de facto official and the only language spoken and taught throughout the country. It was, however, the official language in the federal republics of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.[1][2]
e.^ Official in Slovenia.
f.^ Official in Macedonia.
g.^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states.

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.

It was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

The SFRY traces back to 26 November 1942 when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposal of King Peter II thus ending the monarchy. Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but the SFRY pursued a policy of neutrality after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and changed its economy from a planned to a market socialist economy.

Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment[4] and inflation.[5] The economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in the late 1980s and early 1990s which led to dissidence among the multiple ethnicities within the constituent republics. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation also failed and led to recognition of their independence by some European states in 1991. This led to the federation collapsing along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992. Two of its republics, Serbia and Montenegro, remained within the reconstituted Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but the union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" (bivša Jugoslavija/бивша Југославија) is now commonly used retrospectively.

The SFR Yugoslavia maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, Eutelsat and BTWC.

Name

The name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug ("yug") (with the "j" pronounced like an English "y") and slavija. The Slavic word jug means "south", while slavija ("Slavia") denotes a "land of the Slavs". Thus, a translation of "Jugoslavija" would be "South-Slavia" or "Land of the South Slavs". The full official name of the federation varied significantly between 1945 and 1992.[6]

Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades (even before the country was formed)—the official name of the state.[6] After the Kingdom was occupied during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia or DFY) in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country. The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open.

In 1945, King Peter II was officially deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, and accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia or FPRY), with the constitution coming into force in 1946.[7] In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced. The state is most commonly referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene slightly differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist". The names are as follows:

Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were often used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most commonly known simply as Yugoslavia. The most common abbreviation is SFRY (SFRJ), though SFR Yugoslavia was also used in an official capacity, particularly by the media.

Other Languages
euskara: Jugoslavia
lietuvių: Jugoslavija
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija
Lingua Franca Nova: Iugoslavia