Republic of Slovenia

Republika Slovenija  (Slovene)
Anthem: Zdravljica 
A Toast[i]

Location of  Slovenia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Slovenia  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of Slovenia
and largest city
46°03′N 14°30′E / 46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.050; 14.500
Official languagesSlovene[ii]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Borut Pahor
Marjan Šarec
National Council
National Assembly
•  State of Slovenes,
Croats and Serbs

becomes independent

29 October 1918

4 December 1918
19 February 1944
• Yugoslavia becomes a republic
29 November 1945
• Independence from Yugoslavia
25 June 1991[5]
7 July 1991
23 December 1991
22 May 1992
1 May 2004
• Total
20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) (151st)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
2,070,050 Increase[7] (144th)
• 2002 census
• Density
102[7]/km2 (264.2/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$80.375 billion[8] (97th)
• Per capita
$38,841[9] (37th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$56.920 billion[9]
• Per capita
$27,506[9] (32nd)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 24.4[10]
low · 1st
HDI (2017)Increase 0.896[11]
very high · 25th
CurrencyEuro ()[iii] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+386
ISO 3166 codeSI
  1. ^ Melody by Stanko Premrl.[Note 1]
  2. ^ Hungarian and Italian are co-official in some municipalities.
  3. ^ Slovenian tolar prior to 2007.
  4. ^ Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Slovenia (ə-/ (About this soundlisten)[12][13] VEE-nee-ə; Slovene: Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija]),[14] officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: About this soundRepublika Slovenija ,[15] abbr.: RS[16]), is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes.[17][18] It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest.[19] It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.07 million.[20] One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic[21] and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of NATO.[22] The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.[23]

Slovenia has a mostly mountainous terrain[24] with a mainly continental climate,[25] with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate.[26] Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity,[27][28] is one of the most water-rich in Europe,[29] with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karst underground watercourses.[30] Over half of the territory is covered by forest.[31] The human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.[32]

Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic, Germanic, and Romance languages and cultures.[33][34][35] Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority.[36] The South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country,[37] but Catholicism and Lutheranism have significantly influenced its culture and identity.[38] The economy of Slovenia is small, open and export-oriented[39] and has been strongly influenced[when?] by international conditions.[40] It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009.[41] The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction.[42]

Historically, the current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929).

During World War II (1939–1945) Germany, Italy, and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia (1941–1945), with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state.[43] In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was initially allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement.

In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country.[5] In 2004, it entered NATO and the European Union; in 2007 became the first formerly communist country to join the Eurozone;[44] and in 2010 it joined the OECD, a global association of high-income developed countries.[45]


Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages. The etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain.

The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is usually derived from the word slovo ("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)," i. e. people who understand each other. This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic *němъ "mute, mumbling"). The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory, fame") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew- ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος (kléos "fame"), as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo ("be called"), and English loud.

The modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee (SNOS) held on 19 February 1944. They officially named the state as Federal Slovenia (Federalna Slovenija), a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia (Ljudska republika Slovenija).[46] It retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Socialistična republika Slovenija).[47] On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia; it remained a part of the SFRY until 25 June 1991.

Official names
Date Name Notes
1945–1946 Federal Slovenia Part of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
1946–1963 People's Republic of Slovenia
1963–1990 Socialist Republic of Slovenia
1990–present Republic of Slovenia
Other Languages
Acèh: Slovenia
Адыгэбзэ: Словениэ
адыгабзэ: Словение
Afrikaans: Slowenië
Akan: Slovenia
Alemannisch: Slowenien
አማርኛ: ስሎቬኒያ
Ænglisc: Slofenia
العربية: سلوفينيا
aragonés: Eslovenia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܠܘܒܢܝܐ
armãneashti: Slovenia
arpetan: Slovènie
asturianu: Eslovenia
Avañe'ẽ: Elovéña
azərbaycanca: Sloveniya
تۆرکجه: ایسلوونی
Bân-lâm-gú: Slovenia
башҡортса: Словения
беларуская: Славенія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Славенія
भोजपुरी: स्लोवेनिया
Bikol Central: Slobinya
Bislama: Slovenia
български: Словения
Boarisch: Slowenien
bosanski: Slovenija
brezhoneg: Slovenia
буряад: Словени
català: Eslovènia
Чӑвашла: Словени
Cebuano: Eslobenya
čeština: Slovinsko
Chamoru: Eslovenia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Eslovenia
chiShona: Slovenia
chiTumbuka: Slovenia
corsu: Sluvenia
Cymraeg: Slofenia
dansk: Slovenien
davvisámegiella: Slovenia
Deutsch: Slowenien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސުލޮވީނިއާ
dolnoserbski: Słowjeńska
डोटेली: स्लोभेनिया
eesti: Sloveenia
Ελληνικά: Σλοβενία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Śluvègna
español: Eslovenia
Esperanto: Slovenio
estremeñu: Eslovénia
euskara: Eslovenia
eʋegbe: Slovenia
فارسی: اسلوونی
Fiji Hindi: Slovenia
føroyskt: Slovenia
français: Slovénie
Frysk: Sloveenje
Fulfulde: Suloweniya
furlan: Slovenie
Gaelg: Yn Clovean
Gagauz: Sloveniya
Gàidhlig: Sloibhìnia
galego: Eslovenia
ગુજરાતી: સ્લોવેનિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: स्लोव्हेनिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Slovenia
한국어: 슬로베니아
Hausa: Sloveniya
Hawaiʻi: Solowenia
հայերեն: Սլովենիա
हिन्दी: स्लोवेनिया
hornjoserbsce: Słowjenska
hrvatski: Slovenija
Igbo: Slovenia
Ilokano: Eslobenia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: স্লোভেনিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Slovenia
interlingua: Slovenia
Interlingue: Slovenia
Ирон: Словени
isiZulu: ISloveniya
íslenska: Slóvenía
italiano: Slovenia
עברית: סלובניה
Basa Jawa: Slovénia
Kabɩyɛ: Siloveni
kalaallisut: Slovenia
Kapampangan: Slovenia
къарачай-малкъар: Словения
ქართული: სლოვენია
kaszëbsczi: Słoweniô
қазақша: Словения
kernowek: Sloveni
Kinyarwanda: Siloveniya
Kiswahili: Slovenia
Kongo: Slovenia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sloveni
kurdî: Slovenya
Кыргызча: Словения
Ladino: Eslovenia
latgaļu: Sloveneja
Latina: Slovenia
latviešu: Slovēnija
Lëtzebuergesch: Slowenien
лезги: Словения
lietuvių: Slovėnija
Ligure: Slovenia
Limburgs: Slovenië
lingála: Slovenia
Lingua Franca Nova: Slovenia
Livvinkarjala: Slovenii
la .lojban.: slovEni,as
lumbaart: Sluenia
magyar: Szlovénia
македонски: Словенија
Malagasy: Silaovenia
മലയാളം: സ്ലൊവീന്യ
Malti: Slovenja
Māori: Horowinia
მარგალური: სლოვენია
مازِرونی: اسلونی
Bahasa Melayu: Slovenia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Slovenia
Mirandés: Slobénia
мокшень: Словение
монгол: Словени
Dorerin Naoero: Tsirobeniya
Nederlands: Slovenië
Nedersaksies: Sloveniën
नेपाली: स्लोभेनिया
नेपाल भाषा: स्लोभेनिया
日本語: スロベニア
нохчийн: Словени
Nordfriisk: Slowenien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Slowenya
norsk: Slovenia
norsk nynorsk: Slovenia
Nouormand: Slovénie
Novial: Slovenia
occitan: Eslovènia
олык марий: Словений
Oromoo: Isloveeniyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sloveniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਲੋਵੇਨੀਆ
Pangasinan: Eslovenia
پنجابی: سلوینیا
Papiamentu: Slovenia
Patois: Sloviinia
Перем Коми: Словения
Picard: Slovénie
Piemontèis: Slovenia
Tok Pisin: Slovenia
Plattdüütsch: Slowenien
polski: Słowenia
Ποντιακά: Σλοβενία
português: Eslovénia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Sloveniya
qırımtatarca: Sloveniya
română: Slovenia
rumantsch: Slovenia
Runa Simi: Isluwinya
русиньскый: Словенія
русский: Словения
саха тыла: Словения
Gagana Samoa: Solovenia
संस्कृतम्: स्लोवीनिया
sardu: Islovènia
Scots: Slovenie
Seeltersk: Slowenien
Sesotho: Slovenia
shqip: Sllovenia
sicilianu: Slovenia
Simple English: Slovenia
SiSwati: Siloveni
slovenčina: Slovinsko
slovenščina: Slovenija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їллѷрїиска Словѣнїꙗ
ślůnski: Słowyńijo
Soomaaliga: Isloveeniya
کوردی: سلۆڤێنیا
Sranantongo: Slovenikondre
српски / srpski: Словенија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Slovenija
Basa Sunda: Slovénia
suomi: Slovenia
svenska: Slovenien
Tagalog: Eslobenya
tarandíne: Slovenie
татарча/tatarça: Словения
తెలుగు: స్లోవేనియా
tetun: Eslovénia
тоҷикӣ: Словения
Tsetsêhestâhese: Slovenia
Türkçe: Slovenya
Türkmençe: Sloweniýa
удмурт: Словения
українська: Словенія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سلوۋېنىيە
Vahcuengh: Slovenia
vèneto: Slovenia
vepsän kel’: Slovenii
Tiếng Việt: Slovenia
Volapük: Sloveniyän
Võro: Sloveeniä
walon: Sloveneye
West-Vlams: Slovenië
Winaray: Eslovenya
Wolof: Esloweeni
Xitsonga: Slovenia
ייִדיש: סלאוועניע
Yorùbá: Sloféníà
Zazaki: Slowenya
Zeêuws: Slovenië
žemaitėška: Slovienėjė