Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.[1] A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars also use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations.[2] However, and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs.

Slavery began to exist before written history, in many cultures.[3] A person could become enslaved from the time of their birth, capture, or purchase.

Historically, slavery has been legalized institutionally in most societies at some point, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries.[4][5] The last country to officially abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. Nevertheless, there are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.[6] The most common form of modern slave trade is commonly referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery (or unfree labour) continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today,[2] serfdom, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, and forced marriage.[7]

Terminology

The English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved.[8][9] An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo 'to strip a slain enemy'.[10]

There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as "unfree labourer" or "enslaved person", rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, "slave" perpetuates the crime of slavery in language, by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of, according to Andi Cumbo-Floyd, "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were". Other historians prefer "slave" because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.[11]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: ПщылӀыгъуэ
Afrikaans: Slawerny
Alemannisch: Sklaverei
አማርኛ: ባርነት
Ænglisc: Þēowdōm
العربية: عبودية
aragonés: Esclavitut
asturianu: Esclavitú
Aymar aru: T'aqisiyäwi
azərbaycanca: Quldarlıq
বাংলা: দাসত্ব
Bahasa Banjar: Hulun
Bân-lâm-gú: Lô͘-lē chè-tō͘
башҡортса: Ҡоллоҡ
беларуская: Рабства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рабства
български: Робство
Boarisch: Sklaverei
bosanski: Robovlasništvo
brezhoneg: Sklaverezh
català: Esclavitud
Чӑвашла: Чуралăх
čeština: Otrokářství
chiShona: Muranda
Cymraeg: Caethwasiaeth
dansk: Slaveri
Deutsch: Sklaverei
eesti: Orjus
Ελληνικά: Δουλεία
español: Esclavitud
Esperanto: Sklaveco
estremeñu: Esclavitú
euskara: Esklabotza
Fiji Hindi: Gulami
føroyskt: Trælur
français: Esclavage
Frysk: Slavernij
Gàidhlig: Tràilleachd
galego: Escravitude
ગુજરાતી: ગુલામી પ્રથા
한국어: 노예제
հայերեն: Ստրկություն
hrvatski: Robovlasništvo
Ilokano: Pannakaadipen
Bahasa Indonesia: Perbudakan
íslenska: Þrælahald
italiano: Schiavismo
עברית: עבדות
Basa Jawa: Batur tukon
къарачай-малкъар: Къул тутуу
қазақша: Құлдық
Kiswahili: Utumwa
Kongo: Bumpika
Kreyòl ayisyen: Esklavay
kurdî: Xulamî
Кыргызча: Кулчулук
Latina: Servitus
latviešu: Verdzība
Lëtzebuergesch: Sklaverei
lietuvių: Vergovė
Limburgs: Slavernie
lingála: Boúmbu
la .lojban.: selbaise'u
македонски: Ропство
മലയാളം: അടിമത്തം
Malti: Skjavitù
مصرى: عبوديه
Bahasa Melayu: Perhambaan
Mirandés: Scrabatura
монгол: Боолчлол
Nederlands: Slavernij
नेपाल भाषा: दास
日本語: 奴隷
norsk: Slaveri
norsk nynorsk: Slaveri
occitan: Esclavatge
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qullik
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗ਼ੁਲਾਮੀ
Papiamentu: Sklabitut
Patois: Slievri
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទាសភាព
Piemontèis: S-ciavitù
Plattdüütsch: Slaveree
polski: Niewolnictwo
português: Escravidão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qulshılıq
română: Sclavie
Runa Simi: Isklaw
русиньскый: Рабство
русский: Рабство
саха тыла: Кулут
Scots: Sclavery
sicilianu: Schiavismu
Simple English: Slavery
سنڌي: غلامي
slovenščina: Suženjstvo
Soomaaliga: Adoon
کوردی: کۆیلایەتی
српски / srpski: Ропство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ropstvo
suomi: Orjuus
svenska: Slaveri
Tagalog: Pang-aalipin
татарча/tatarça: Коллык
తెలుగు: బానిసత్వం
ไทย: ทาส
тоҷикӣ: Ғуломдорӣ
Türkçe: Kölelik
українська: Рабство
اردو: غلامی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قۇللۇق تۈزۈم
Tiếng Việt: Nô lệ
Winaray: Pan-uuripon
吴语: 奴隶制
ייִדיש: שקלאפעריי
Yorùbá: Okoẹrú
粵語: 奴隸制
Zazaki: Bındestiye
žemaitėška: Verguobė
中文: 奴隶制度