Republic of Singapore
Republik Singapura  (Malay)
新加坡共和国 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு (Tamil)
"Majulah Singapura" (Malay)
(English: "Onward, Singapore")
Anthem: Majulah Singapura
(English: "Onward, Singapore")
Location of  Singapore  (red)
Location of  Singapore  (red)
CapitalSingapore (city-state)
1°17′N 103°50′E / 1°17′N 103°50′E / 1.283; 103.833
Largest PABedok[1]
1°19′25″N 103°55′38″E / 1°19′25″N 103°55′38″E / 1.32361; 103.92722
Official languages
Recognised national languages
Official scripts
Ethnic groups (2015)[2]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
• President
Halimah Yacob
Lee Hsien Loong
Independence from the United Kingdom
31 August 1957[3]
16 September 1963
9 August 1965
8 August 1967
• Total
722.5 km2 (279.0 sq mi)[4] (176th)
• 2017 estimate
5,612,300[5] (113th)
• of which citizens (2017)
• Density
7,796/km2 (20,191.5/sq mi) (3rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$554.855 billion[6] (39th)
• Per capita
$98,014[6] (3rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$349.659 billion[6] (41st)
• Per capita
$61,766[6] (8th)
Gini (2014)Negative increase 46.4[7]
high · 30th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.932[8]
very high · 9th
CurrencySingapore dollar (SGD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (SST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+65
ISO 3166 codeSG
Internet TLD

Singapore (ɔːr/ (About this sound listen)), officially the Republic of Singapore (Malay: Republik Singapura; Chinese: 新加坡共和国; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு), is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 square kilometres or 50 square miles). The country is known for its transition from third world to first world in a single generation, under the leadership of its founding father, Lee Kuan Yew.[9]

Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan. It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but separated two years later over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965. After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce.

Singapore is a global hub for education,[10] entertainment,[11] finance, healthcare,[12] human capital,[13] innovation,[14] logistics,[15] manufacturing,[16] technology,[17] tourism,[18] trade, and transport.[19] The city ranks highly in numerous international rankings, and has been recognized as the most "technology-ready" nation (WEF), top International-meetings city (UIA),[20][21] city with "best investment potential" (BERI), world's smartest city,[22] world's safest country,[23][24] third-most competitive country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, and the second-busiest container port.[25] The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013.[26] It is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, and one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" respectively for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".[27][28]

Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. The Singaporean passport is joint first with Japan for visa-free travel granted by the most countries to its citizens.[29]

The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual and English serves as the nation's lingua franca. Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Pew Research has found that Singapore has the highest religious diversity of any country. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, politics, among others.

Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat,[30] as well as many international conferences and events. It is also a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations.[31]


The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, Singapura, which was in turn derived from Sanskrit[32] (सिंहपुर, IAST: Siṃhapura; siṃha is "lion", pura is "town" or "city"), hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, and its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols (e.g., its coat of arms, Merlion emblem). However, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island; Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is firmly established.[33][34] The central island has also been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally "island at the end" (of the Malay Peninsula) in Malay.[35][36]

Singapore is also referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence,[37][38] and the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot.[39][40][41] Also referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues.[42]

Other Languages
Acèh: Singapura
адыгабзэ: Сингапур
Afrikaans: Singapoer
Alemannisch: Singapur
አማርኛ: ሲንጋፖር
Ænglisc: Singapore
العربية: سنغافورة
aragonés: Singapur
arpetan: Singapor
অসমীয়া: ছিংগাপুৰ
asturianu: Singapur
Avañe'ẽ: Singapúra
azərbaycanca: Sinqapur
تۆرکجه: سنقاپور
Bahasa Banjar: Singapura
Bân-lâm-gú: Sin-ka-pho
Basa Banyumasan: Singapura
башҡортса: Сингапур
беларуская: Сінгапур
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сынгапур
भोजपुरी: सिंगापुर
Bikol Central: Singapur
Bislama: Singapore
български: Сингапур
Boarisch: Singapur
བོད་ཡིག: སེང་ག་ཕོར།
bosanski: Singapur
brezhoneg: Singapour
буряад: Сингапур
català: Singapur
Чӑвашла: Сингапур
Cebuano: Singgapura
čeština: Singapur
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Singapur
chiShona: Singapore
chiTumbuka: Singapore
Cymraeg: Singapôr
dansk: Singapore
davvisámegiella: Singapore
Deutsch: Singapur
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިންގަޕޫރު
dolnoserbski: Singapur
eesti: Singapur
Ελληνικά: Σιγκαπούρη
español: Singapur
Esperanto: Singapuro
estremeñu: Singapul
euskara: Singapur
eʋegbe: Singapore
فارسی: سنگاپور
Fiji Hindi: Singapore
føroyskt: Singapor
français: Singapour
Frysk: Singapoer
Fulfulde: Sinngapuur
Gaeilge: Singeapór
Gaelg: Singapore
Gagauz: Singapur
Gàidhlig: Singeapòr
galego: Singapur
贛語: 新加坡
Gĩkũyũ: Singapore
ગુજરાતી: સિંગાપુર
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सिंगापूर
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sîn-kâ-pô
한국어: 싱가포르
Hausa: Singafora
Hawaiʻi: Sinapoa
հայերեն: Սինգապուր
हिन्दी: सिंगापुर
hornjoserbsce: Singapur
hrvatski: Singapur
Ilokano: Singapur
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সিঙ্গাপুর
Bahasa Indonesia: Singapura
interlingua: Singapur
Interlingue: Singapor
Iñupiak: Singapore
íslenska: Singapúr
italiano: Singapore
עברית: סינגפור
Basa Jawa: Singapura
kalaallisut: Singapore
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಂಗಾಪುರ
Kapampangan: Singapur
ქართული: სინგაპური
kaszëbsczi: Singapùr
қазақша: Сингапур
kernowek: Singapour
Kinyarwanda: Singapore
Kiswahili: Singapuri
Kongo: Singapore
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sengapou (peyi)
kurdî: Singapûr
Кыргызча: Сингапур
Ladino: Singapur
лезги: Сингапур
لۊری شومالی: سنگاپۊر
Latina: Singapura
latviešu: Singapūra
Lëtzebuergesch: Singapur (Republik)
lietuvių: Singapūras
Ligure: Scingapô
Limburgs: Singapore
lingála: Singapur
Livvinkarjala: Singapore
la .lojban.: singapura
lumbaart: Singapur
magyar: Szingapúr
मैथिली: सिङ्गापुर
македонски: Сингапур
Malagasy: Singapaoro
മലയാളം: സിംഗപ്പൂർ
Malti: Singapor
Māori: Hingapoa
मराठी: सिंगापूर
მარგალური: სინგაპური
مازِرونی: سنگاپور
Bahasa Melayu: Singapura
Baso Minangkabau: Singapura
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sĭng-gă-pŏ̤
Mirandés: Singapura
монгол: Сингапур
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စင်ကာပူနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Singapur
Dorerin Naoero: Tsingapoar
Nederlands: Singapore
नेपाली: सिङ्गापुर
नेपाल भाषा: सिंगापोर
нохчийн: Сингапур
Nordfriisk: Singapuur
Norfuk / Pitkern: Singapur
norsk: Singapore
norsk nynorsk: Singapore
Novial: Singapore
occitan: Singapor
олык марий: Сингапур
Oromoo: Singaappoor
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Singapur
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿੰਗਾਪੁਰ
پنجابی: سنگاپور
Papiamentu: Singapura
Patois: Singgapuor
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សិង្ហបុរី
Picard: Singapour
Piemontèis: Singapor
Tok Pisin: Singapore
Plattdüütsch: Singapur
polski: Singapur
português: Singapura
Qaraqalpaqsha: Singapur
qırımtatarca: Singapur
română: Singapore
Runa Simi: Singapur
русиньскый: Сінґапур
русский: Сингапур
саха тыла: Сингапур
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱤᱝᱜᱟᱯᱩᱨ
Gagana Samoa: Sigapoa
संस्कृतम्: सिङ्गापुरम्
Sängö: Sïngäpûru
Scots: Singapore
shqip: Singapori
sicilianu: Singapura
Simple English: Singapore
سنڌي: سنگاپور
SiSwati: ISingapholo
slovenčina: Singapur
slovenščina: Singapur
ślůnski: Singapur
Soomaaliga: Singabuur
کوردی: سینگاپور
српски / srpski: Сингапур
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Singapur
Basa Sunda: Singapura
suomi: Singapore
svenska: Singapore
Tagalog: Singapore
Taqbaylit: Singapur
tarandíne: Singapore
татарча/tatarça: Сингапур
తెలుగు: సింగపూరు
tetun: Singapura
тоҷикӣ: Сингапур
Türkçe: Singapur
Türkmençe: Singapur
удмурт: Сингапур
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Singapura
українська: Сінгапур
اردو: سنگاپور
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سىنگاپور
Vahcuengh: Saengyabo
vèneto: Singapor
vepsän kel’: Singapur
Tiếng Việt: Singapore
Volapük: Singapurän
Võro: Singapur
文言: 新加坡
West-Vlams: Singapore
Winaray: Singgapura
Wolof: Singapoor
吴语: 新加坡
Xitsonga: Singapore
ייִדיש: סינגאפור
Yorùbá: Singapore
粵語: 星加坡
Zazaki: Singapur
Zeêuws: Singapoor
žemaitėška: Singapūrs
中文: 新加坡
डोटेली: सिंगापुर
ГӀалгӀай: Сингапур
Kabɩyɛ: Sɛŋgapuuri
Lingua Franca Nova: Singapor