Singapore

Motto: Majulah Singapura  (Malay)
(English: "Onward, Singapore")
Anthem: Majulah Singapura
(English: "Onward, Singapore")
Location of Singapore
CapitalSingapore[1] (city-state)
1°17′N 103°50′E / 1°17′N 103°50′E / 1.283; 103.833
Official languages
National languageMalay
Ethnic groups
(2015)[2]
Religion
(2015)[2]
Demonym(s)Singaporean
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Halimah Yacob
Lee Hsien Loong
Tan Chuan-Jin
Sundaresh Menon
LegislatureParliament
Independence 
3 June 1959
16 September 1963
9 August 1965
8 August 1967
Area
• Total
725.1 km2 (280.0 sq mi)[3] (176th)
Population
• 2018 estimate
5,638,700[4][Note 1] (113th)
• Density
7,804/km2 (20,212.3/sq mi) (2nd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$589.187 billion[5] (36th)
• Per capita
$103,717[5] (3rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$372.807 billion[5] (31st)
• Per capita
$65,627[5] (7th)
Gini (2017)Steady 45.9[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.932[7]
very high · 9th
CurrencySingapore dollar (S$) (SGD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Singapore Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+65
ISO 3166 codeSG
Internet TLD.sg

Singapore (ɔːr/ (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in Southeast Asia. The country is situated one degree (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 square kilometres or 50 square miles).

Although its history stretches back millennia, modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the Company's collapse in 1858, the islands came under direct British control as a crown colony known as the Straits Settlements. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, following which Britain occupied it again. Singapore gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with Sabah and Sarawak, but separated two years later over ideological differences, becoming a fully sovereign state in 1965. After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce.

The city-state is classified as an Alpha+ global city, indicating its influence on the global economy. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, and one of 11 worldwide. Singapore is a highly developed country and is ranked 9th on the UN Human Development Index, the highest in Asia for a sovereign state, with the 3rd highest GDP per capita in the world.[8][9] It was ranked the most expensive city to live in from 2013 to 2019 by the Economist.[10] It is identified as a tax haven.[11] Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 90%. Singaporeans enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancy and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world.[12] As of 2019, Singaporean citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 189 countries and territories, ranking the Singaporean passport 1st in the world, tied with Japan.[13]

The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages of Singapore: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual, with English serving as the nation's lingua franca, while Malay is the national language. Nonetheless,only about 10% of the population speaks Malay, with the most commonly spoken language at home being English.[14] Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Pew Research has found that Singapore has the highest religious diversity of any country. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing and politics. The city-state's historical district features dozens of landmarks such as The Esplanade, Fort Canning Hill, the National Gallery Singapore, Raffles Hotel and the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple. There are also numerous famous attractions within the city-state, notably Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay Sands, Sentosa Island, Orchard Road, Jewel Changi Airport and the Singapore Zoo, which was ranked the best zoo in Asia.[15] The Singapore Botanic Gardens is the only tropical garden in the world to be honoured as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[16]

Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. According to the Democracy Index in 2018, the country is described as a "flawed democracy".[17] As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat,[18] as well as many international conferences and events. It is also a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations.[19]

Etymology

The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, Singapura, which was in turn derived from Sanskrit[20] (सिंहपुर, IAST: Siṃhapura; siṃha meaning "lion", and pura meaning "town" or "city"), hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, and its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols (e.g., its coat of arms, and the Merlion emblem). However, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island—Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are, however, other suggestions for the origin of the name, and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is firmly established.[21][22] The central island has also been called Pulau Ujong, literally "island at the end" (of the Malay Peninsula) in Malay, as far back as the third century CE.[23][24]

Singapore is also referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence,[25][26] and the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot.[27][28][29]

Other Languages
Acèh: Singapura
адыгабзэ: Сингапур
Afrikaans: Singapoer
Alemannisch: Singapur
አማርኛ: ሲንጋፖር
Ænglisc: Singapore
العربية: سنغافورة
aragonés: Singapur
arpetan: Singapor
অসমীয়া: ছিংগাপুৰ
asturianu: Singapur
Avañe'ẽ: Singapúra
azərbaycanca: Sinqapur
تۆرکجه: سنقاپور
Banjar: Singapura
Bân-lâm-gú: Sin-ka-pho
Basa Banyumasan: Singapura
башҡортса: Сингапур
беларуская: Сінгапур
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сынгапур
भोजपुरी: सिंगापुर
Bikol Central: Singapur
Bislama: Singapore
български: Сингапур
Boarisch: Singapur
བོད་ཡིག: སེང་ག་ཕོར།
bosanski: Singapur
brezhoneg: Singapour
буряад: Сингапур
català: Singapur
Чӑвашла: Сингапур
Cebuano: Singgapura
čeština: Singapur
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Singapur
chiShona: Singapore
chiTumbuka: Singapore
Cymraeg: Singapôr
dansk: Singapore
davvisámegiella: Singapore
Deutsch: Singapur
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިންގަޕޫރު
dolnoserbski: Singapur
डोटेली: सिंगापुर
eesti: Singapur
Ελληνικά: Σιγκαπούρη
эрзянь: Сингапур
español: Singapur
Esperanto: Singapuro
estremeñu: Singapul
euskara: Singapur
eʋegbe: Singapore
فارسی: سنگاپور
Fiji Hindi: Singapore
føroyskt: Singapor
français: Singapour
Frysk: Singapoer
Fulfulde: Sinngapuur
Gaeilge: Singeapór
Gaelg: Singapore
Gagauz: Singapur
Gàidhlig: Singeapòr
galego: Singapur
ГӀалгӀай: Сингапур
贛語: 新加坡
Gĩkũyũ: Singapore
ગુજરાતી: સિંગાપુર
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सिंगापूर
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sîn-kâ-pô
한국어: 싱가포르
Hausa: Singafora
Hawaiʻi: Sinapoa
հայերեն: Սինգապուր
हिन्दी: सिंगापुर
hornjoserbsce: Singapur
hrvatski: Singapur
Ilokano: Singapur
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সিঙ্গাপুর
Bahasa Indonesia: Singapura
interlingua: Singapur
Interlingue: Singapor
Iñupiak: Singapore
íslenska: Singapúr
italiano: Singapore
עברית: סינגפור
Jawa: Singapura
Kabɩyɛ: Sɛŋgapuuri
kalaallisut: Singapore
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಂಗಾಪುರ
Kapampangan: Singapur
ქართული: სინგაპური
kaszëbsczi: Singapùr
қазақша: Сингапур
kernowek: Singapour
Kinyarwanda: Singapore
Kiswahili: Singapuri
Kongo: Singapore
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sengapou (peyi)
kurdî: Singapûr
Кыргызча: Сингапур
لۊری شومالی: سنگاپۊر
Latina: Singapura
latviešu: Singapūra
Lëtzebuergesch: Singapur (Republik)
лезги: Сингапур
lietuvių: Singapūras
Ligure: Scingapô
Limburgs: Singapore
lingála: Singapur
Lingua Franca Nova: Singapor
Livvinkarjala: Singapore
la .lojban.: singapura
lumbaart: Singapur
magyar: Szingapúr
मैथिली: सिङ्गापुर
македонски: Сингапур
Malagasy: Singapaoro
മലയാളം: സിംഗപ്പൂർ
Malti: Singapor
Māori: Hingapoa
मराठी: सिंगापूर
მარგალური: სინგაპური
مازِرونی: سنگاپور
Bahasa Melayu: Singapura
Minangkabau: Singapura
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sĭng-gă-pŏ̤
Mirandés: Singapura
монгол: Сингапур
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စင်ကာပူနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Singapur
Dorerin Naoero: Tsingapoar
Nederlands: Singapore
नेपाली: सिङ्गापुर
नेपाल भाषा: सिंगापोर
нохчийн: Сингапур
Nordfriisk: Singapuur
Norfuk / Pitkern: Singapur
norsk: Singapore
norsk nynorsk: Singapore
Novial: Singapore
occitan: Singapor
олык марий: Сингапур
Oromoo: Singaappoor
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Singapur
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿੰਗਾਪੁਰ
پنجابی: سنگاپور
Papiamentu: Singapura
پښتو: سنګاپور
Patois: Singgapuor
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សិង្ហបុរី
Picard: Singapour
Piemontèis: Singapor
Tok Pisin: Singapore
Plattdüütsch: Singapur
polski: Singapur
português: Singapura
Qaraqalpaqsha: Singapur
qırımtatarca: Singapur
română: Singapore
Runa Simi: Singapur
русиньскый: Сінґапур
русский: Сингапур
саха тыла: Сингапур
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱤᱝᱜᱟᱯᱩᱨ
Gagana Samoa: Sigapoa
संस्कृतम्: सिङ्गापुरम्
Sängö: Sïngäpûru
Scots: Singapore
shqip: Singapori
sicilianu: Singapura
Simple English: Singapore
سنڌي: سنگاپور
SiSwati: ISingapholo
slovenčina: Singapur
slovenščina: Singapur
ślůnski: Singapur
Soomaaliga: Singabuur
کوردی: سینگاپوور
српски / srpski: Сингапур
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Singapur
Sunda: Singapura
suomi: Singapore
svenska: Singapore
Tagalog: Singapore
Taqbaylit: Singapur
tarandíne: Singapore
татарча/tatarça: Сингапур
తెలుగు: సింగపూరు
tetun: Singapura
тоҷикӣ: Сингапур
Türkçe: Singapur
Türkmençe: Singapur
удмурт: Сингапур
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Singapura
українська: Сінгапур
اردو: سنگاپور
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سىنگاپور
Vahcuengh: Saengyabo
vèneto: Singapor
vepsän kel’: Singapur
Tiếng Việt: Singapore
Volapük: Singapurän
Võro: Singapur
文言: 新加坡
West-Vlams: Singapore
Winaray: Singgapura
Wolof: Singapoor
吴语: 新加坡
Xitsonga: Singapore
ייִדיש: סינגאפור
Yorùbá: Singapore
粵語: 星加坡
Zazaki: Singapur
Zeêuws: Singapoor
žemaitėška: Singapūrs
中文: 新加坡