|Sinai insurgency (2011–present)|
|Part of the Arab Winter, the Egyptian Crisis, and the Insurgency in Egypt (2013–present)|
Map of the Sinai Peninsula.
(For a more detailed map of the current military situation in Sinai, see here.)
Multinational Force and Observers
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (from 2014)
|Commanders and leaders|
Sedki Sobhi Sami Anan
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Muhammad al-Zawahiri (POW)
Abd El-Fattah Salem (POW)
Fayez Abu-Sheta †
Youssif Abo-Ayat †
Saed Abo-Farih †
Abu Osama al-Masri (ISIL Emir of Wilayat Sinai) Shadi el-Manaei
Selim Suleiman Al-Haram †
|Total: 25,000 (41 battalions)|
|Casualties and losses|
|500–1000 killed||1,100–2,000+ killed|
|Civilian casualties: 500+ Egyptian, 219 Russians, 4 Ukrainians, 1 Belarusian, 6 Israeli, 4 South Korean, 1 Croatian|
Yamam: 2 killed
IDF: 1 killed
Total: 2,371–4,735+ killed
The Sinai insurgency is an ongoing conflict in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, between Islamist militants and Egyptian security forces, which has included attacks on civilians. The insurgency began after the start of the Egyptian Crisis, which saw the overthrow of longtime Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak in the Egyptian revolution of 2011.
The Sinai insurgency initially consisted of militants, largely composed of local Bedouin tribesmen, who exploited the chaotic situation in Egypt and weakened central authority to launch a series of attacks on government forces in Sinai. In 2014, elements of the Ansar Bait al-Maqdis group pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and proclaimed themselves Sinai Province, and a part of ISIL. Security officials say militants based in Libya have established ties with the Sinai Province group and have blamed the porous border and ongoing civil war for the increase in sophisticated weapons available to the Islamist groups.
The Egyptian authorities have attempted to restore their presence in the Sinai through both political and military measures. Egypt launched two military operations, known as Operation Eagle in mid-2011 and then Operation Sinai in mid-2012. In May 2013, following an abduction of Egyptian officers, violence in the Sinai surged once again. Following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, which resulted in the ousting of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi, "unprecedented clashes" have occurred.
The fallout suffered by the locals as a result of the insurgency in Sinai ranges from militant operations and the state of insecurity to extensive military operations and the demolishing of hundreds of homes and evacuating thousands of residents as Egyptian troops pressed on to build a buffer zone meant to halt the smuggling of weapons and militants from and to the Gaza strip. A report, compiled by a delegation from the state-funded National Council for Human Rights (NCHR), stated that most of the displaced families share the same grievances of palpable government negligence, unavailability of nearby schools for their sons and the lack of health services. Since the start of the conflict, dozens of civilians were killed either in military operations or kidnapped and then beheaded by militants. In November 2017, more than 300 Sufist worshippers were killed and over 100 injured in an attack on a mosque west of the city of Al-Arish.