Sikhs

Sikhs
Ranjit Singh at Harmandir Sahib - August Schoefft - Vienna 1850 - Princess Bamba Collection - Lahore Fort.jpg
Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Total population
c. 27 million[1]
Founder
Guru Nanak
Regions with significant populations
 India20,815,730[2]
 United States500,000–700,000[3][4][5]
 Canada468,673[6]
 United Kingdom432,429[7][8][9]
 Italy150,000[10]
 Australia125,900[11]
 Malaysia120,000[12]
 Thailand70,000[13]
 Pakistan50,000[14]
 United Arab Emirates50,000[15]
 Philippines50,000[16][17]
 New Zealand40,908[18]
 Germany10,000–20,000[19]
 Singapore15,000[20]
 Indonesia10.000[21]
 Hong Kong10,000[22]
 Norway5,000[23]
 Fiji2,577[24]
Religions
Sikhism
Scriptures
Guru Granth Sahib
Languages
Punjabi and other languages of India

Sikhs (k/ or k/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ, sikkh, [sɪkkʰ]) are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.[25] The term Sikh has its origin in the words शिष्य (śiṣya), meaning a disciple or a student.[26][27] A Sikh, according to Article I of the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Sikh code of conduct), is "any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being; ten Gurus, from Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh; Guru Granth Sahib; the teachings of the ten Gurus and the baptism bequeathed by the tenth Guru".[28]

The Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs and was ruled by the Sikhs for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest India has a majority Sikh population, and sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom, recognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses.[29] The American non-profit organization United Sikhs has sought to have Sikh included on the US census as an ethnicity, arguing that Sikhs "self-identify as an 'ethnic minority'" and believe "that they are more than just a religion".[30]

Male Sikhs generally have "Singh" (Lion) as their middle or last name (not all Singhs are Sikhs), and female Sikhs have "Kaur" (Princess) as their middle or last name. Sikhs who have undergone the Khanḍe-kī-Pahul (the Sikh initiation ceremony) may also be recognized by the five Ks: Kesh, uncut hair which is kept covered, usually by a turban; Kara, an iron or steel bracelet; Kirpan, a sword tucked into a gatra strap or a kamal kasar belt; Kachehra, a cotton undergarment; and a Kanga, a small wooden comb.

History

Guru Nanak (1469–1539), founder of Sikhism, was born to Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta, in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore.[31] Guru Nanak was a religious leader and social reformer. However, Sikh political history may be said to begin with the death of the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev, in 1606.[32] Religious practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh on 30 March 1699. Gobind Singh initiated five people from a variety of social backgrounds, known as the Panj Piare (the five beloved ones) to form the Khalsa,[33] or collective body of initiated Sikhs. During the period of Mughal rule in India (1556–1707) several Sikh gurus were killed by the Mughals for opposing their persecution of minority religious communities including Sikhs.[34] The Sikhs subsequently militarized to oppose Mughal rule.[citation needed]

Metal helmet in a museum
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet

After defeating the Afghan and Mughal, sovereign states called Misls were formed under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. The Confederacy was unified and transformed into the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh Bahadur, which was characterised by religious tolerance and pluralism, with Christians, Muslims and Hindus in positions of power. The empire is considered the zenith of political Sikhism,[35] encompassing Kashmir, Ladakh and Peshawar. Hari Singh Nalwa, the commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army in the North West Frontier, expanded the confederacy to the Khyber Pass. Its secular administration implemented military, economic and governmental reforms.

Sikh armour and weapons

After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the latter recognized the martial qualities of the Sikhs and Punjabis in general and started recruiting from that area. During the 1857 Indian mutiny, the Sikhs stayed loyal to the British. This resulted in heavy recruiting from Punjab to the colonial army for the next 90 years of the British Raj.[36] The distinct turban that differentiates a Sikh from other turban wearers is a relic of the rules of the British Indian Army.[37] The British colonial rule saw the emergence of many reform movements in India including Punjab. This included formation in 1873 and 1879 of the First and Second Singh Sabha respectively. The Sikh leaders of the Singh Sabha worked to offer a clear definition of Sikh identity and tried to purify Sikh belief and practice.[38]

The later part of British colonial rule saw the emergence of the Akali movement to bring reform in the gurdwaras during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.[39]

The months leading up to the partition of India in 1947 were marked by conflict in the Punjab between Sikhs and Muslims. This caused the religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab, mirroring a similar religious migration of Punjabi Muslims from East Punjab.[40] The 1960s saw growing animosity between Sikhs and Hindus in India,[41] with the Sikhs demanding the creation of a Punjab state on a linguistic basis similar to other states in India. This was promised to Sikh leader Master Tara Singh by Jawaharlal Nehru, in return for Sikh political support during negotiations for Indian independence.[42] Although the Sikhs obtained the Punjab, they lost Hindi-speaking areas to Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. Chandigarh was made a union territory and the capital of Haryana and Punjab on 1 November 1966.

Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale triggered violence in the Punjab. The prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered an operation to remove Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star. This led to her assassination by her Sikh bodyguards.[43] Gandhi's assassination resulted in an explosion of violence against Sikh communities and the killing of thousands of Sikhs throughout India. Since 1984, relations between Sikhs and Hindus have moved toward a rapprochement aided by economic prosperity. However, a 2002 claim by the Hindu right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) that "Sikhs are Hindus" disturbed Sikh sensibilities.[44]

During the 1999 Vaisakhi, Sikhs worldwide celebrated the 300th anniversary of the creation of the Khalsa. Canada Post honoured Sikh Canadians with a commemorative stamp in conjunction with the 300th anniversary of Vaisakhi. On 9 April 1999 Indian president K. R. Narayanan issued a stamp commemorating the 300th anniversary of the Khalsa.[45]

In 2004, Manmohan Singh became the first Sikh Prime Minister of India, and first Sikh Head of government in the world.

Other Languages
অসমীয়া: শিখ
বাংলা: শিখ
Bikol Central: Sikh
български: Сикх
català: Sikhs
español: Sij
Esperanto: Sikoj
فارسی: سیک
Fiji Hindi: Sikh
français: Sikh
Gaeilge: Saíceach
ગુજરાતી: શીખ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: शीख पंथ
հայերեն: Սիկհեր
हिन्दी: सिख
Bahasa Indonesia: Sikh
íslenska: Síkar
ქართული: სიქები
मैथिली: सिख
മലയാളം: സിഖ്
मराठी: शीख
მარგალური: სიქეფი
Nederlands: Sikh
日本語: シク教徒
norsk: Sikher
norsk nynorsk: Sikhar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿੱਖ
پنجابی: سکھ
русский: Сикхи (народ)
српски / srpski: Сики
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sikhi
українська: Сикхи
اردو: سکھ
中文: 锡克人