Coat of arms of Sicily
Coat of arms
Anthem: Madreterra
Sicily in Italy.svg
 • PresidentNello Musumeci (Centre-right)
 • Total25,711 km2 (9,927 sq mi)
 • Total5,029,675[1] (8.3% of Italy)
Demonym(s)English: Sicilian
Italian: Siciliano (man)
Italian: Siciliana (woman)
 • Italian98%
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
GDP/ Nominal€87 billion
(US$102 billion)[3] (2016)
GDP per capita€17,200
(US$20,000)[3] (2016)
HDI (2017)0.836[4]
very high · 21th of 21

Sicily (Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja]; Sicilian: Sicilia [sɪˈʃiːlja]) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe,[5] and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate.

The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC.[6][7] By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, and the Emirate of Sicily. The Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, which was subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou, Spain, and the House of Habsburg.[8] It was finally unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, and a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied, especially financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee (50% Italian State, 50% Regione Siciliana), since 1946.

Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, and architecture. It is also home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Erice and Selinunte.


The island of Sicily
Sicilian landscape

Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide in the north, and about 16 km (9.9 mi) wide in the southern part.[9] The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km (170 mi) long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km (110 mi); total coast length is estimated at 1,484 km (922 mi). The total area of the island is 25,711 km2 (9,927 sq mi),[10] while the Autonomous Region of Sicily (which includes smaller surrounding islands) has an area of 27,708 km2 (10,698 sq mi).[11]

The terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m (6,600 ft), Nebrodi, 1,800 m (5,900 ft), and Peloritani, 1,300 m (4,300 ft), are an extension of the mainland Apennines. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[12] The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s.

Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some highly active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions. It currently stands 3,329 metres (10,922 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21 m (69 ft) lower now than it was in 1981. It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 km (87 mi). This makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is widely regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily.

The Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, and include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano, Vulcanello and Lipari are also currently active, although the latter is usually dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, which is part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831. It is located between the coast of Agrigento and the island of Pantelleria (which itself is a dormant volcano).

The autonomous region also includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands, Pantelleria and Lampedusa.


The island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island. The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, and the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Belice and Platani in the southwest.

River length in km (mi)
Salso 144 km (89 mi)
Simeto 113 km (70 mi)
Belice 107 km (66 mi)
Dittaino 105 km (65 mi)
Platani 103 km (64 mi)
Gornalunga 81 km (50 mi)
Gela (river) 74 km (46 mi)
Salso Cimarosa 72 km (45 mi)
Torto 58 km (36 mi)
Irminio 57 km (35 mi)
Dirillo 54 km (34 mi)
Verdura 53 km (33 mi)
Alcantara 52 km (32 mi)
Tellaro 45 km (28 mi)
Anapo 40 km (25 mi)



Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with very changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts, especially the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching.

Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but also, above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate.

Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can easily carry it in the hills and even in coastal cities, especially on the northern coast of the island. The interior mountains, especially Nebrodi, Madonie and Etna, enjoy a fully mountain climate, with heavy snowfalls during winter. The summit of Mount Etna is usually snow capped from October to May.

On the other hand, especially in the summer it is not unusual that there is the sirocco, the wind from the Sahara. Rainfall is scarce, and water proves deficient in some provinces where water crisis can happen sometimes.

According to the Regional Agency for Waste and Water, on 10 August 1999, the weather station of Catenanuova (EN) recorded a maximum temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F).[13] The official European record – measured by minimum/maximum thermometers – is held by Athens, Greece, which reported a maximum of 48.0 °C (118 °F) in 1977.[14] Total precipitation is highly variable, generally increasing with elevation. In general, the southern and southeast coast receives the least rainfall (less than 50 cm (20 in)), and the northern and northeastern highlands the most (over 100 cm (39 in)).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sisilië
አማርኛ: ሲኪልያ
Ænglisc: Sicilia
العربية: صقلية
aragonés: Secilia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܩܠܝܐ
arpetan: Secila
asturianu: Sicilia
azərbaycanca: Siciliya
تۆرکجه: سیسیل
বাংলা: সিসিলি
Bân-lâm-gú: Sicilia
беларуская: Сіцылія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сыцылія
Bikol Central: Sicily
български: Сицилия
Boarisch: Sizilien
བོད་ཡིག: སི་ཅི་ལི་ཡ།
bosanski: Sicilija
brezhoneg: Sikilia
català: Sicília
Чӑвашла: Сицили
Cebuano: Sicilia
čeština: Sicílie
corsu: Sicilia
Cymraeg: Sisili
dansk: Sicilien
davvisámegiella: Sicilia
dolnoserbski: Siciliska
Ελληνικά: Σικελία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Sizégglia
español: Sicilia
Esperanto: Sicilio
estremeñu: Sicília
euskara: Sizilia
فارسی: سیسیل
føroyskt: Sisilia
français: Sicile
Frysk: Sisylje
furlan: Sicilie
Gaeilge: An tSicil
Gàidhlig: Sicilia
galego: Sicilia
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sicilia
한국어: 시칠리아
Hausa: Sisiliya
हिन्दी: सिसिली
hornjoserbsce: Sicilska
hrvatski: Sicilija
Ido: Sicilia
Ilokano: Sicilia
Bahasa Indonesia: Sisilia
interlingua: Sicilia
Interlingue: Sicilia
Ирон: Сицили
íslenska: Sikiley
italiano: Sicilia
עברית: סיציליה
Basa Jawa: Sisilia
Kapampangan: Sicily
ქართული: სიცილია
қазақша: Сицилия
kernowek: Sisili
Kiswahili: Sisilia
kurdî: Sîcîlya
Кыргызча: Сицилия
Ladino: Sisilia
لۊری شومالی: سیسیل
latviešu: Sicīlija
Lëtzebuergesch: Sizilien
lietuvių: Sicilija
Ligure: Siçillia
Limburgs: Sicilië
Lingua Franca Nova: Sisilia
lumbaart: Sicilia
magyar: Szicília
македонски: Сицилија
മലയാളം: സിസിലി
Malti: Sqallija
मराठी: सिचिल्या
მარგალური: სიცილია
مصرى: سيسيليا
مازِرونی: سیسیل
Bahasa Melayu: Sicilia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sicily
Nederlands: Sicilië
日本語: シチリア
Napulitano: Sicilia
нохчийн: Сицили
Nordfriisk: Siziilien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Sicilii
norsk: Sicilia
norsk nynorsk: Sicilia
Nouormand: Sicile
occitan: Sicília
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿਚੀਲੀਆ
پنجابی: سسلی
Picard: Sicile
Piemontèis: Sicilia
Plattdüütsch: Sizilien
polski: Sycylia
português: Sicília
română: Sicilia
Runa Simi: Sicilia
русский: Сицилия
саха тыла: Сициилийэ
sardu: Sitzìlia
Scots: Sicily
shqip: Siçilia
sicilianu: Sicilia
Simple English: Sicily
slovenščina: Sicilija
ślůnski: Sycylijo
Soomaaliga: Sasiiliya
کوردی: سیسیلیا
српски / srpski: Сицилија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sicilija
svenska: Sicilien
Tagalog: Sicilia
தமிழ்: சிசிலி
tarandíne: Sicilie
తెలుగు: సిసిలీ
українська: Сицилія
اردو: صقلیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سىتسىلىيە
vèneto: Siciłia
Tiếng Việt: Sicilia
West-Vlams: Sicilië
Winaray: Sicilia
吴语: 西西里岛
Xitsonga: Sicily
ייִדיש: סיציליע
Yorùbá: Sicily
粵語: 西西里
中文: 西西里岛