Shah Jahan

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad
Shah Jahan
شهاب الدین محمد
شاہ جهان
Padishah of the Mughal Empire
Shah Jahan
'Jujhar Singh Bundela Kneels in Submission to Shah Jahan', painted by Bichitr, c. 1630, Chester Beatty Library (cropped).jpg
Shah Jahan
5th Mughal Emperor
Reign19 January 1628 –31 July 1658[1]
Coronation14 February 1628,[2] Agra
PredecessorShahryar Mirza (de facto)
Jahangir
SuccessorAurangzeb
BornShahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3]
5 January 1592
Lahore, Mughal Empire
Died22 January 1666(1666-01-22) (aged 74)
Agra Fort, Agra, Mughal Empire
Burial
Taj Mahal, Agra
ConsortMumtaz Mahal
Wives
Issue
among others...
Full name
Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3]
Regnal name
Shah Jahan[6]
HouseTimurid
FatherJahangir
MotherJagat Gosain
ReligionIslam

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3] (5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666),[7] better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (Persian: شاه جهان; "King of the World"),[8] was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.[9]His reign represented the height of the Indian architecture, most notably the Taj Mahal. His relationship with his wife Mumtaz Mahal has been heavily adapted into Indian art, literature, and cinema.

Shah Jahan was widely considered the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's four sons and after Jahangir's death in late 1627, when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan emerged victorious. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill. This set off a war of succession among his four sons in which his third son, Aurangzeb, emerged victorious.[10] Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb put his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from July 1658 until his death in January 1666.[11] On 31 July 1658, Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor under the title "Alamgir".[12]

The Mughal Empire reached the pinnacle of its glory during Shah Jahan's reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors.[13]

Early life

Birth

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore, in modern-day Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession).[14] His mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Jagat Gosaini (her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). The name "Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship.[14]

Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Akbar's first wife and chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness.[15] So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, and Akbar could fulfill his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor.[15] Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care.[16] The two shared a close relationship with each other. Jahangir noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own [son]."[17]

Khurram remained with her until he turned almost 14. After Akbar's death in 1605, the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, and thus, be closer to his biological mother.[15]

Education

As a child, Khurram received a broad education befitting his status as a Mughal prince, which included martial training and exposure to a wide variety of cultural arts, such as poetry and Hindustani classical music, most of which was inculcated, according to court chroniclers, by Akbar and Ruqaiya. In 1605, as Akbar lay on his deathbed, Khurram, who at this point was 13,[18][full citation needed] remained by his bedside and refused to move even after his mother tried to retrieve him. Given the politically uncertain times immediately preceding Akbar's death, Khurram was in a fair amount of physical danger from political opponents of his father,[19] His conduct at this time can be understood as a precursor to the bravery that he would later be known for.[citation needed]

Khusrau rebellion

In 1605, his father succeeded to the throne, after crushing a rebellion by Prince Khusrau – Khurram remained distant from court politics and intrigues in the immediate aftermath of that event, which was apparently a conscious decision on Jahangir's part.[20][full citation needed] As the third son, Khurram did not challenge the two major power blocs of the time, his father's and his step-brother's; thus, he enjoyed the benefits of imperial protection and luxury while being allowed to continue with his education and training.[21] This relatively quiet and stable period of his life allowed Khurram to build his own support base in the Mughal court, which would be useful later on in his life.[citation needed]

Nur Jahan

Due to the long period of tensions between his father and step-brother, Khurram began to drift closer to his father and over time started to be considered the de facto heir-apparent by court chroniclers. This status was given official sanction when Jahangir granted the sarkar of Hissar-Feroza, which had traditionally been the fief of the heir-apparent, to Khurram in 1608.[22] Nur Jahan was an intelligent and beautiful lady with an excellent educational background. She was an active participant in the decisions made by Jahangir. Slowly and gradually, she became the actual power behind the throne, as Jahangir became more indulgent in wine and opium. Coins began to be struck containing her name along with Jahangir's name. Her near and dear relatives acquired important positions in the Mughal court, termed as the Nur Jahan junta by historians. After the death of Jahangir in 1627, Nur Jahan was put under house arrest and led a quiet life.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Shah Jahan
العربية: شاه جهان
asturianu: Sha Jahan
azərbaycanca: Sultan Şahcahan
تۆرکجه: شاه جهان
বাংলা: শাহ জাহান
Bân-lâm-gú: Shah Jahan
башҡортса: Шаһ Йыһан
беларуская: Шах-Джахан
भोजपुरी: शाहजहाँ
български: Шах Джахан
brezhoneg: Shah Jahan
català: Xa Jahan
čeština: Šáhdžahán
dansk: Shah Jahan
Deutsch: Shah Jahan
Ελληνικά: Σαχ Τζαχάν
español: Sha Jahan
Esperanto: Ŝaho Ĝahano
euskara: Shah Jahan
فارسی: شاه جهان
français: Shâh Jahân
Gaeilge: Shah Jahan
galego: Shah Jahan
ગુજરાતી: શાહજહાં
한국어: 샤 자한
հայերեն: Շահ Ջահան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Շահ Ճահան
हिन्दी: शाह जहाँ
hrvatski: Džahan-šah
Bahasa Indonesia: Shah Jahan
íslenska: Shah Jahan
italiano: Shah Jahan
עברית: שאה ג'האן
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಷಹ ಜಹಾನ್
ქართული: შაჰ-ჯაჰანი
қазақша: I Шаһ Жаһан
Кыргызча: Шах-Жахан
latviešu: Šahs Džahāns
lietuvių: Džahanšachas
मैथिली: शाहजहाँ
Malagasy: Shah Jahan
മലയാളം: ഷാജഹാൻ
मराठी: शाह जहान
مصرى: شاه جهان
Bahasa Melayu: Shah Jahan
монгол: Шах Жахан
Nederlands: Shah Jahan
नेपाली: शाहजहाँ
norsk: Shah Jahan
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଶାହଜାହାନ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shoh-Jahon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਾਹ ਜਹਾਨ
پنجابی: شاہجہان
پښتو: شاه جهان
polski: Szahdżahan
português: Shah Jahan
română: Shah Jahan
русский: Шах-Джахан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱟᱦᱡᱟᱦᱟᱱ
संस्कृतम्: शाहजहानः
Scots: Shah Jahan
Simple English: Shah Jahan
سنڌي: شاهجهان
српски / srpski: Шах Џахан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Šah Džahan
suomi: Shah Jahan
svenska: Shah Jahan
Tagalog: Shah Jahan
தமிழ்: ஷாஜகான்
తెలుగు: షాజహాన్
Türkçe: Şah Cihan
українська: Шах Джахан
اردو: شاہ جہاں
Tiếng Việt: Shah Jahan
吴语: 沙贾汉
中文: 沙贾汉