Sexagenary cycle

Sexagenary cycle
Chinese 六十干支
Stems-and-Branches
Chinese 干支

The sexagenary cycle, also known as the Stems-and-Branches or ganzhi, is a cycle of sixty terms used for reckoning time in China and the East Asian cultural sphere. [1] It appears as a means of recording days in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang oracle bones of the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years began around the middle of the 3rd century BC. [2] The cycle and its variations have been an important part of the traditional calendrical systems in Chinese-influenced Asian states and territories, particularly those of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, with the old Chinese system still in use in Taiwan.

This traditional method of numbering days and years no longer has any significant role in modern Chinese time keeping or the official calendar. However, the sexagenary cycle is still used in names of many historical events, such as the Chinese Xinhai Revolution, the Japanese Boshin War, and the Korean Imjin War. It also continues to have a role in contemporary Chinese astrology and fortune telling.

Overview

Statues of Tai Sui deities responsible for individual years of the sexagenary cycle

Each term in the sexagenary cycle consists of two Chinese characters, the first being one of the ten Heavenly Stems of the Shang-era week and the second being one of the twelve Earthly Branches representing the years of Jupiter's duodecennial orbital cycle. The first term jiǎzǐ ( 甲子) combines the first heavenly stem with the first earthly branch. The second term yǐchǒu ( 乙丑) combines the second stem with the second branch. This pattern continues until both cycles conclude simultaneously with guǐhài ( 癸亥), after which it begins again at jiǎzǐ. This termination at ten and twelve's least common multiple leaves half of the combinations—such as jiǎchǒu (甲丑)—unused; this is traditionally explained by reference to pairing the stems and branches according to their yin and yang properties.

This combination of two sub-cycles to generate a larger cycle and its use to record time have parallels in other calendrical systems, notably the Akan calendar. [3]

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Kan-chi
한국어: 간지
Bahasa Indonesia: Ganzhi
Bahasa Melayu: Ganzhi
日本語: 干支
norsk bokmål: Sekstiårig syklus
norsk nynorsk: Sekstiårig syklus
Simple English: Sexagenary cycle
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Seksagenarni ciklus
Basa Sunda: Daur séksagenari
Tiếng Việt: Can Chi
文言: 干支
粵語: 干支
中文: 干支