Serbia

Republic of Serbia
Република Србија (Serbian)
Republika Srbija  (Serbian)
Anthem: 
"Боже правде" / "Bože pravde"
(English: "God of Justice")
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
44°48′N 20°28′E / 44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800; 20.467
Official languagesSerbian
Ethnic groups (2011)
DemonymSerbian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Aleksandar Vučić
Ana Brnabić
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
late 8th century
1217/1346
1459–1556
1815
1878
1912–1918
• Independent republic
5 June 2006
Area
• Including Kosovo
88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) (111th)
• Excluding Kosovo
77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)[1]
Population
• 2017 estimate
7,040,272 (excluding Kosovo) Decrease[2] (104th)
• Density
91.1/km2 (235.9/sq mi) (121th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$112.475 billion[3] (78th)
• Per capita
$16,063 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (83rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$42.378 billion[3] (86th)
• Per capita
$6,052 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (88th)
Gini (2013)29.6[4]
low
HDI (2015)Increase 0.776[5]
high · 66th
CurrencySerbian dinar (RSD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Drives on theright
Calling code+381
ISO 3166 codeRS
Internet TLD
  1. From the fall of Smederevo until conquest of Belgrade, Mačva and Vojvodina

Serbia (Serbian: Србија / Srbija [sř̩bija]),[note 1] officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija [repǔblika sř̩bija]), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central[6] and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.[7] It borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; Macedonia to the south; Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the west and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents.[8] Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest and largest cities in southeastern Europe.[9][7]

Following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans postdating the 6th century, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, reaching its peak in 1346 as a relatively short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entire modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century, while maintaining a foothold in modern-day Vojvodina. In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.[10] Following disastrous casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina (and other territories) with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the country declared independence in April 1992 as Serbia formed a union with Montenegro[11], which was peacefully dissolved in 2006.[12] In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.

Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA and it is acceding to the WTO.[13] Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025[14] and is the only country in the current enlargement agenda which is designated as "free" by Freedom House.[15] Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. An upper-middle income economy[16] with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high by the Human Development Index (66th),[17] Social Progress Index (45th)[18] as well as the Global Peace Index (54th).[19]

Etymology

The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs (Serbian: Srbi / Срби) and Sorbs (Upper Sorbian: Serbja; Lower Sorbian: Serby) in different variants: Surbii, Suurbi, Serbloi, Zeriuani, Sorabi, Surben, Sarbi, Serbii, Serboi, Zirbi, Surbi, Sorben,[20] etc. These authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical (or current) presence was/is not disputed (notably in the Balkans and Lusatia), but there are also sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World (most notably in the Asiatic Sarmatia in the Caucasus).

Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb (пасерб, "stepson"), Ukrainian pryserbytysia (присербитися, "join in"), Old Indic sarbh- ("fight, cut, kill"), Latin sero ("make up, constitute"), and Greek siro (ειρω, "repeat").[21] However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond (1906–1982) derived the denomination of Srb from srbati (cf. sorbo, absorbo).[22] Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать (Russian), сьорбати (Ukrainian), сёрбаць (Belarusian), srbati (Slovak), сърбам(Bulgarian) and серебати (Old Russian).[23]

From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.[12]

Other Languages
Acèh: Sèrbia
Адыгэбзэ: Сербиэ
адыгабзэ: Сербие
Afrikaans: Serwië
Alemannisch: Serbien
አማርኛ: ሰርቢያ
Ænglisc: Serbia
العربية: صربيا
aragonés: Serbia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܪܒܝܐ
armãneashti: Sãrghia
arpetan: Sèrbie
asturianu: Serbia
Avañe'ẽ: Sévia
авар: Сербия
Aymar aru: Sirwiya
azərbaycanca: Serbiya
تۆرکجه: صربیستان
Bân-lâm-gú: Serbia
башҡортса: Сербия
беларуская: Сербія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэрбія
भोजपुरी: सर्बिया
Bikol Central: Serbya
Bislama: Serbia
български: Сърбия
Boarisch: Serbien
བོད་ཡིག: སེར་བྷི་ཡ།
bosanski: Srbija
brezhoneg: Serbia
буряад: Серби
català: Sèrbia
Чӑвашла: Серби
Cebuano: Serbya
čeština: Srbsko
Chamoru: Serbia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Serbia
chiShona: Serbia
chiTumbuka: Serbia
corsu: Serbia
Cymraeg: Serbia
dansk: Serbien
davvisámegiella: Serbia
Deutsch: Serbien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސާބިއާ
dolnoserbski: Serbiska
eesti: Serbia
Ελληνικά: Σερβία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Sèrbia
español: Serbia
Esperanto: Serbio
estremeñu: Sérbia
euskara: Serbia
eʋegbe: Serbia
فارسی: صربستان
Fiji Hindi: Serbia
føroyskt: Serbia
français: Serbie
Frysk: Servje
Fulfulde: Serbiya
Gaeilge: An tSeirbia
Gaelg: Yn Serb
Gagauz: Serbiya
Gàidhlig: An t-Sèirb
galego: Serbia
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सर्बिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Serbia
한국어: 세르비아
Hausa: Serbiya
Hawaiʻi: Seripia
հայերեն: Սերբիա
हिन्दी: सर्बिया
hornjoserbsce: Serbiska
hrvatski: Srbija
Ido: Serbia
Igbo: Serbia
Ilokano: Serbia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সার্বিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Serbia
interlingua: Serbia
Interlingue: Serbia
Ирон: Серби
isiZulu: ISerbiya
íslenska: Serbía
italiano: Serbia
עברית: סרביה
Basa Jawa: Sèrbi
kalaallisut: Serbia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸೆರ್ಬಿಯ
къарачай-малкъар: Сербия
ქართული: სერბეთი
kaszëbsczi: Serbskô
қазақша: Сербия
kernowek: Serbi
Kinyarwanda: Seribiya
Kiswahili: Serbia
коми: Сербия
Kongo: Serbie
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sèbi
kurdî: Serbistan
Кыргызча: Сербия
Ladino: Serbia
лезги: Сербия
لۊری شومالی: صئربئستان
latgaļu: Serbeja
Latina: Serbia
latviešu: Serbija
Lëtzebuergesch: Serbien
lietuvių: Serbija
Ligure: Serbia
Limburgs: Servië
lingála: Serbia
Livvinkarjala: Serbii
la .lojban.: serbias
lumbaart: Serbia
magyar: Szerbia
македонски: Србија
Malagasy: Serbia
മലയാളം: സെർബിയ
Malti: Serbja
Māori: Serbia
मराठी: सर्बिया
მარგალური: სერბეთი
مصرى: صيربيا
مازِرونی: صربستون
Bahasa Melayu: Serbia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Serbia
Mirandés: Sérbia
мокшень: Сербие
монгол: Серби
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆားဘီးယားနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Terbiya
Nederlands: Servië
Nedersaksies: Servië
नेपाली: सर्बिया
नेपाल भाषा: सर्बिया
日本語: セルビア
Napulitano: Serbia
нохчийн: Серби
Nordfriisk: Serbien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Serbya
norsk: Serbia
norsk nynorsk: Serbia
Nouormand: Sèrbie
Novial: Serbia
occitan: Serbia
олык марий: Сербий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସର୍ବିଆ
Oromoo: Sarbiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Serbiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਰਬੀਆ
पालि: सर्बिया
Pangasinan: Srbija
پنجابی: سربیا
Papiamentu: Serbia
پښتو: سربيا
Patois: Soerbia
Перем Коми: Сӧрбия
Picard: Serbie
Piemontèis: Serbia
Tok Pisin: Sebia
Plattdüütsch: Serbien
polski: Serbia
Ποντιακά: Σερβία
português: Sérvia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Serbiya
qırımtatarca: Sırbistan
reo tahiti: Terepia
Ripoarisch: Serbien
română: Serbia
rumantsch: Serbia
Runa Simi: Sirbya
русиньскый: Сербія
русский: Сербия
саха тыла: Сербия
Gagana Samoa: Serbia
संस्कृतम्: सर्बिया
sardu: Sèrbia
Scots: Serbie
Seeltersk: Serbien
Sesotho: Serbia
shqip: Serbia
sicilianu: Serbia
Simple English: Serbia
SiSwati: ISebhiya
slovenčina: Srbsko
slovenščina: Srbija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срьбїꙗ
ślůnski: Syrbijo
Soomaaliga: Seerbiya
کوردی: سربیا
Sranantongo: Srbiyakondre
српски / srpski: Србија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Srbija
Basa Sunda: Sérbia
suomi: Serbia
svenska: Serbien
Tagalog: Serbia
தமிழ்: செர்பியா
Taqbaylit: Serbya
tarandíne: Serbie
татарча/tatarça: Сербия
తెలుగు: సెర్బియా
tetun: Sérvia
тоҷикӣ: Сербия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏒᏈᏯ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Serbia
Türkçe: Sırbistan
Türkmençe: Serbiýa
Twi: Serbia
українська: Сербія
اردو: سربیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سېربىيە
Vahcuengh: Serbia
vèneto: Servia
vepsän kel’: Serbii
Tiếng Việt: Serbia
Volapük: Särbän
Võro: Serbiä
文言: 塞爾維亞
West-Vlams: Servië
Winaray: Serbia
Wolof: Seerbi
吴语: 塞尔维亚
Xitsonga: Serbia
ייִדיש: סערביע
Yorùbá: Sérbíà
粵語: 塞爾維亞
Zazaki: Sırbıstan
Zeêuws: Servië
žemaitėška: Serbėjė
中文: 塞尔维亚
डोटेली: सर्बिया
Kabɩyɛ: Sɛɛribii
Lingua Franca Nova: Serbia