Serbia

Republic of Serbia

Република Србија (Serbian)
Republika Srbija  (Serbian)
Anthem: 
"Боже правде" / "Bože pravde"
(English: "God of Justice")
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
44°48′N 20°28′E / 44°48′N 20°28′E / 44.800; 20.467
Official languagesSerbian
Recognised regional or minority languages
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Demonym(s)Serbian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Aleksandar Vučić
Ana Brnabić
Maja Gojković
LegislatureNarodna skupština
Establishment history
early 7th century
1217/1346
1459–1556
1804
1815
1878
1912–1918
• Independent republic
5 June 2006
Area
• Including Kosovo
88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) (111th)
• Excluding Kosovo
77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)[1]
Population
• 2017 estimate
Decrease7,001,444 (excluding Kosovo)[2] (104th)
• Density
91.1/km2 (235.9/sq mi) (121th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$119 billion[3] (78th)
• Per capita
$17,076 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (83rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$50 billion[3] (86th)
• Per capita
$7,199 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (88th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 37.8[4]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.787[5]
high · 67th
CurrencySerbian dinar (RSD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+381
ISO 3166 codeRS
Internet TLD
  1. From the fall of Smederevo until conquest of Belgrade, Mačva and Vojvodina

Serbia (Serbian: Србија / Srbija, pronounced [sř̩bija]),[note 1] officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija, pronounced [repǔblika sř̩bija]), is a country situated at the crossroads of Central[6] and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.[7] It borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest. The country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.[a] Serbia's population numbers approximately seven million,[8] most of whom are Orthodox Christians. Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe.[9][7][10]

Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Southeastern Europe in the 6th century, establishing several regional states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine, Frankish and Hungarian kingdoms. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the relatively short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans; their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which began expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in Vojvodina. In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.[11] Following disastrous casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina (and other territories) with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro,[12] which was peacefully dissolved in 2006.[13] In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.

A unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, and is acceding to the WTO.[14] Since 2014, the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025.[15] Serbia has suffered from democratic backsliding in recent years, having dropped in ranking from "Free" to "Partly Free" in the 2019 Freedom House report.[16] Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. The country provides a social security, universal health care system, and a tuition-free primary and secondary education to its citizens. An upper-middle income economy[17] with a dominant service sector followed in size by the industrial sector and the agricultural sector, the country ranks relatively high on the Human Development Index (66th),[18] Social Progress Index (45th)[19] as well as the Global Peace Index (54th).[20]

Etymology

The origin of the name Serbia is unclear. Historically, authors have mentioned the Serbs (Serbian: Srbi / Срби) and the Sorbs of eastern Germany (Upper Sorbian: Serbja; Lower Sorbian: Serby) in a variety of ways: Surbii, Suurbi, Serbloi, Zeriuani, Sorabi, Surben, Sarbi, Serbii, Serboi, Zirbi, Surbi, Sorben,[21] etc. These authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical (or current) presence was/is not disputed (notably in the Balkans and Lusatia), but there are also sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World (most notably in the Asiatic Sarmatia in the Caucasus).

Left: Lepenski Vir idol, 7000 BC
Right: Vinča culture figurine, 4000–4500 BC

The Proto-Slavic root word *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb (пасерб, "stepson"), Ukrainian pryserbytysia (присербитися, "join in"), Old Indic sarbh- ("fight, cut, kill"), Latin sero ("make up, constitute"), and Greek siro (ειρω, "repeat").[22] Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond (1906–1982) derived the Serbian language ethnonym Srb from srbati (cf. sorbo, absorbo).[23] Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать (Russian), сьорбати (Ukrainian), сёрбаць (Belarusian), srbati (Slovak), сърбам (Bulgarian) and серебати (Old Russian).[24]

From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, later renamed the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country has been the Republic of Serbia. From 1992 to 2006, however, the official names of the country Serbia was a part of were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and then the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.[13]

Other Languages
Acèh: Sèrbia
Адыгэбзэ: Сербиэ
адыгабзэ: Сербие
Afrikaans: Serwië
Alemannisch: Serbien
አማርኛ: ሰርቢያ
Ænglisc: Serbia
العربية: صربيا
aragonés: Serbia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܪܒܝܐ
armãneashti: Sãrghia
arpetan: Sèrbie
asturianu: Serbia
Avañe'ẽ: Sévia
авар: Сербия
Aymar aru: Sirwiya
azərbaycanca: Serbiya
تۆرکجه: صربیستان
Bân-lâm-gú: Serbia
башҡортса: Сербия
беларуская: Сербія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэрбія
भोजपुरी: सर्बिया
Bikol Central: Serbya
Bislama: Serbia
български: Сърбия
Boarisch: Serbien
བོད་ཡིག: སེར་བྷི་ཡ།
bosanski: Srbija
brezhoneg: Serbia
буряад: Серби
català: Sèrbia
Чӑвашла: Серби
Cebuano: Serbya
čeština: Srbsko
Chamoru: Serbia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Serbia
chiShona: Serbia
chiTumbuka: Serbia
corsu: Serbia
Cymraeg: Serbia
dansk: Serbien
davvisámegiella: Serbia
Deutsch: Serbien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސާބިއާ
dolnoserbski: Serbiska
डोटेली: सर्बिया
eesti: Serbia
Ελληνικά: Σερβία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Sèrbia
español: Serbia
Esperanto: Serbio
estremeñu: Sérbia
euskara: Serbia
eʋegbe: Serbia
فارسی: صربستان
Fiji Hindi: Serbia
føroyskt: Serbia
français: Serbie
Frysk: Servje
Fulfulde: Serbiya
furlan: Serbie
Gaeilge: An tSeirbia
Gaelg: Yn Serb
Gagauz: Serbiya
Gàidhlig: An t-Sèirb
galego: Serbia
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सर्बिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Serbia
한국어: 세르비아
Hausa: Serbiya
Hawaiʻi: Seripia
հայերեն: Սերբիա
हिन्दी: सर्बिया
hornjoserbsce: Serbiska
hrvatski: Srbija
Ido: Serbia
Igbo: Serbia
Ilokano: Serbia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সার্বিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Serbia
interlingua: Serbia
Interlingue: Serbia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓰᕐᐱᐊ
Ирон: Серби
isiZulu: ISerbiya
íslenska: Serbía
italiano: Serbia
עברית: סרביה
Jawa: Sèrbi
Kabɩyɛ: Sɛɛribii
kalaallisut: Serbia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸೆರ್ಬಿಯ
къарачай-малкъар: Сербия
ქართული: სერბეთი
kaszëbsczi: Serbskô
қазақша: Сербия
kernowek: Serbi
Kinyarwanda: Seribiya
Kiswahili: Serbia
коми: Сербия
Kongo: Serbie
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sèbi
kurdî: Serbistan
Кыргызча: Сербия
Ladino: Serbia
لۊری شومالی: سربستان
latgaļu: Serbeja
Latina: Serbia
latviešu: Serbija
Lëtzebuergesch: Serbien
лезги: Сербия
lietuvių: Serbija
Ligure: Serbia
Limburgs: Servië
lingála: Serbia
Lingua Franca Nova: Serbia
Livvinkarjala: Serbii
la .lojban.: serbias
lumbaart: Serbia
magyar: Szerbia
македонски: Србија
Malagasy: Serbia
മലയാളം: സെർബിയ
Malti: Serbja
Māori: Serbia
मराठी: सर्बिया
მარგალური: სერბეთი
مصرى: صيربيا
مازِرونی: صربستون
Bahasa Melayu: Serbia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Serbia
Mirandés: Sérbia
мокшень: Сербие
монгол: Серби
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆားဘီးယားနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Terbiya
Nederlands: Servië
Nedersaksies: Servië
नेपाली: सर्बिया
नेपाल भाषा: सर्बिया
日本語: セルビア
Napulitano: Serbia
нохчийн: Серби
Nordfriisk: Serbien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Serbya
norsk: Serbia
norsk nynorsk: Serbia
Nouormand: Sèrbie
Novial: Serbia
occitan: Serbia
олык марий: Сербий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସର୍ବିଆ
Oromoo: Sarbiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Serbiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਰਬੀਆ
पालि: सर्बिया
Pangasinan: Srbija
پنجابی: سربیا
Papiamentu: Serbia
پښتو: سربيا
Patois: Soerbia
Перем Коми: Сӧрбия
Picard: Serbie
Piemontèis: Serbia
Tok Pisin: Sebia
Plattdüütsch: Serbien
polski: Serbia
Ποντιακά: Σερβία
português: Sérvia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Serbiya
qırımtatarca: Sırbistan
reo tahiti: Terepia
Ripoarisch: Serbien
română: Serbia
rumantsch: Serbia
Runa Simi: Sirbya
русиньскый: Сербія
русский: Сербия
саха тыла: Сербия
Gagana Samoa: Serbia
संस्कृतम्: सर्बिया
sardu: Sèrbia
Scots: Serbie
Seeltersk: Serbien
Sesotho: Serbia
shqip: Serbia
sicilianu: Serbia
Simple English: Serbia
SiSwati: ISebhiya
slovenčina: Srbsko
slovenščina: Srbija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срьбїꙗ
ślůnski: Syrbijo
Soomaaliga: Seerbiya
کوردی: سربیا
Sranantongo: Srbiyakondre
српски / srpski: Србија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Srbija
Basa Sunda: Sérbia
suomi: Serbia
svenska: Serbien
Tagalog: Serbia
தமிழ்: செர்பியா
Taqbaylit: Serbya
tarandíne: Serbie
татарча/tatarça: Сербия
తెలుగు: సెర్బియా
tetun: Sérvia
тоҷикӣ: Сербия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏒᏈᏯ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Serbia
Türkçe: Sırbistan
Türkmençe: Serbiýa
Twi: Serbia
удмурт: Сербия
українська: Сербія
اردو: سربیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سېربىيە
Vahcuengh: Serbia
vèneto: Servia
vepsän kel’: Serbii
Tiếng Việt: Serbia
Volapük: Särbän
Võro: Serbiä
文言: 塞爾維亞
West-Vlams: Servië
Winaray: Serbia
Wolof: Seerbi
吴语: 塞尔维亚
Xitsonga: Serbia
ייִדיש: סערביע
Yorùbá: Sérbíà
粵語: 塞爾維亞
Zazaki: Sırbıstan
Zeêuws: Servië
žemaitėška: Serbėjė
中文: 塞尔维亚