Septinsular Republic

Septinsular Republic
Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία ( el)
Eptánisos Politía
Repubblica Settinsulare ( it)
جزايير سبعه موجتمعه جومهورى ( ota)
Protectorate of Russia and Ottoman Empire1 (1800-1807)
Protectorate of the French Empire (1807-1815)
1800–1815
Flag
Flag
Emblem of the Septinsular Republic
Emblem of the Septinsular Republic
The Republic's territory extended to the seven main islands plus the smaller islets of the Ionian Sea
Capital Corfu
Languages Official languages:
Greek (from 1803)
Italian
Unofficial minority languages: [1] [2] [3]
Italkian, Venetian, Yevanic
Religion Greek Orthodox Church (official)
Roman Catholic Church (recognised)
Judaism
Government Aristocratic republic
Prince2
 •  1800–02 (first) Count Spiridion Georgio Teotochi ( el)
Legislature Parliament
 •  Upper house Senate (Senato, Γερουσία)
 •  Lower house Legislative Assembly (Corpo Legislativo, Νομοθετικό Σώμα)
Historical era 19th century
 •  Russian/Ottoman occupation 1799
 •  Established April 2, 1800
 •  1st constitution 1800
 •  2nd constitution 23 December 1803
 •  3rd constitution 1806 (not implemented)
 •  Ceded to France 7 July 1807
 •  Corfu occupied by Britain 24 June 1814
 •  British Protectorate 5 November 1815
Currency Septinsular gazeta
Preceded by
Succeeded by
French departments of Greece
United States of the Ionian Islands
Today part of   Greece3
1: Formally under Ottoman suzerainty; under the de facto protection of the Russian Empire
2: According to the 1803 Constitution the President of the Senate gets the title of the Prince (Principo, Πρίγκηψ) and he is head of state.
3: Sazan Island (Saseno, Σάσων) is now a part of Albania.

The Septinsular Republic ( Greek: Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία, Italian: Repubblica Settinsulare, Ottoman Turkish: جزاييرى صباى موجتميا جومهوروCezayir-i Seb'a-i Müctemia Cumhuru) was an island republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Russian and Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands. It succeeded the previous French departments of Greece. It was the first time Greeks had been granted even limited self-government since the fall of the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in 1460. [4] In 1807, the republic was ceded to Napoleon's First French Empire, but the islands were not annexed by France, keeping their institutions of government (known in French as République Septinsulaire or République des Sept-Îles). The British gradually took control of the islands, and following the Treaty of Paris, the islands were formally organised into the United States of the Ionian Islands under British protection.

The seven islands constituting the Republic were:

Background

By the late 18th century, the Ionian Islands had been under Venetian authority for centuries. With the Treaty of Leoben (18 April 1797), the French Republic gained the islands, a move finalised with the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio, which formally abolished the Venetian state.

The islands now formed part of the départements Mer-Égée, Ithaque and Corcyre. The arrival of the French sparked great enthusiasm among the islands' inhabitants, and was marked by acts such as the burning of the Libro d'Oro, the abolition of aristocratic privileges and the adoption of the Constitution of the Year III in 1795.

The French then proceeded to strengthen the defences of Corfu. By the end of the 18th century, it was the strongest fort in Europe, with more than a thousand French cannons placed on its walls.

Despite several progressive measures adopted by the French administration, heavy taxation and the undisciplined behaviour of French soldiers soon alienated the population. This discontent was used by a joint Russo-Ottoman force under Admiral Ushakov to evict the French from the islands.

In March 1799, the city of Corfu fell after a four-month siege, ending French rule. This was the beginning of the Septinsular Republic.

Other Languages