Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews
יהדות ספרד‬ (Yahadut Sefarad)
Total population
2,200,000
up to 16% of world Jewish population
Regions with significant populations
 Israel1.4 million
 France300,000–400,000
 United States200,000–300,000
 Argentina50,000
 Brazil40,000
 Spain40,000
 Canada30,000
 Turkey26,000
 Italy24,930
 Mexico15,000
 United Kingdom8,000
 Panama8,000
 Colombia7,000
 Morocco6,000
 Greece6,000
 Bosnia and Herzegovina2,000
 Tunisia2,000
 Bulgaria2,000
 Cuba1,500
 Serbia1,000
 Netherlands600
 Indonesia500
 Macedonia200
Languages
Historical: Ladino, Arabic, Haketia, Judeo-Portuguese, Berber, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages
Modern: Local languages, primarily Hebrew, French, English, Turkish, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Ladino, Arabic.
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans, other Levantines, Lebanese, Syrians, other Near Eastern Semitic people, Spaniards, Portuguese, Pieds-noirs and Hispanics/Latinos

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים‬, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַדYe'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division. They established communities throughout areas of modern Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity, which they took with them in their exile from Iberia beginning in the late 15th century to North Africa, Anatolia, the Levant, Southeastern and Southern Europe, as well as the Americas, and all other places of their exiled settlement, either alongside pre-existing co-religionists, or alone as the first Jews in new frontiers. Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia began to decline with the Reconquista and was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain's Catholic Monarchs in 1492, and then by the edict of expulsion of Jews and Muslims by Portuguese king Manuel I in 1496,[1] which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.

More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come sometimes to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition.

Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been variants of either Spanish or Portuguese, though other tongues had been adopted and adapted throughout their history. The historical forms of Spanish or Portuguese that differing Sephardic communities spoke communally was determined by the date of their departure from Iberia, and their condition of departure as Jews or New Christians.

Judaeo-Spanish, sometimes called "Ladino Oriental" (Eastern Ladino), was a Romance language derived from Old Spanish, incorporating elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula, Hebrew and Aramaic, and was spoken by what became the Eastern Sephardim, who settled in the Eastern Mediterranean, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. This dialect was further influenced by Ottoman Turkish, Levantine Arabic, Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian vocabulary in the differing lands of their exile. Haketia (also known as "Tetouani" in Algeria), an Arabic-influenced Judaeo-Spanish variety also derived from Old Spanish, with numerous Hebrew and Aramaic terms was spoken by North African Sephardim, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. The main feature of this dialect is the heavy influence of the Jebli Arabic dialect of northern Morocco. Early Modern Spanish and Early Modern Portuguese, including in a mixture of the two was traditionally spoken or used liturgically by the ex-converso Western Sephardim, taken with them during their later migration out of Iberia between the 16th and 18th centuries as conversos, after which they reverted to Judaism. Modern Spanish and Modern Portuguese varieties, traditionally spoken by the Sephardic Bnei Anusim of Iberia and Ibero-America, including some recent returnees to Judaism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In this latter case, these varieties have incorporated loanwords from the indigenous languages of the Americas introduced following the Spanish conquest.

Etymology

The name Sephardi means "Spanish" or "Hispanic", derived from Sepharad (Hebrew: סְפָרַד, Modern Sfarád, Tiberian Səp̄āráḏ), a Biblical location.[2] The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by later Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad (ספרד) still means "Spain" in modern Hebrew.

In other languages and scripts, "Sephardi" may be translated as plural Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Sfaraddim, Tiberian Səp̄āraddîm; sefardí or Spanish: Sefardíes; Portuguese: Sefarditas; sefardita or Catalan: Sefardites; Aragonese: Safardís; Basque: Sefardiak; French: Séfarades; Galician: Sefardís; Italian: Sefarditi; Greek: Σεφαρδίτες Sephardites; Serbian: Сефарди Sefardi; Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian: Sefardi; Bulgarian: Сефаради Sefaradi; Turkish: Sefarad, Judaeo-Spanish: Sefaradies/Sefaradim; and Arabic: سفارديونSafārdiyyūn.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sefardiese Jode
Alemannisch: Sephardim
aragonés: Sefardís
azərbaycanca: Səfərad yəhudiləri
беларуская: Сефарды
bosanski: Sefardi
català: Sefardites
Deutsch: Sephardim
Ελληνικά: Σεφαρδίτες
español: Sefardí
Esperanto: Sefardoj
euskara: Sefardi
français: Séfarade
galego: Sefardí
hrvatski: Sefardi
Bahasa Indonesia: Sefardim
interlingua: Sephardi
italiano: Sefarditi
ქართული: სეფარდები
kurdî: Sefardî
Ladino: Sefaradim
Latina: Sephardim
latviešu: Sefardi
lumbaart: Sefardita
magyar: Szefárdok
македонски: Сефарди
Bahasa Melayu: Orang Yahudi Sephardi
Nederlands: Sefardische Joden
norsk: Sefarder
norsk nynorsk: Sefardar
occitan: Sefarditas
Plattdüütsch: Sephardim
português: Sefardita
română: Evrei sefarzi
русский: Сефарды
sicilianu: Sifardita
Simple English: Sephardi Jews
slovenčina: Sefardskí Židia
slovenščina: Sefardski Judje
српски / srpski: Сефарди
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sefardi
svenska: Sefarder
українська: Сефарди
walon: Sefarådes
ייִדיש: ספרדים
Lingua Franca Nova: Sefardi