Seoul

Seoul
서울시
Special City
Seoul Special City
서울특별시
Seoul montage.
About this image
Official logo of Seoul
Seal of Seoul
Map of South Korea with Seoul highlighted
Map of South Korea with Seoul highlighted
Seoul is located in South Korea
Seoul
Seoul
Map of South Korea with Seoul highlighted
Seoul is located in Asia
Seoul
Seoul
Seoul (Asia)
Seoul is located in Earth
Seoul
Seoul
Seoul (Earth)
Coordinates: 37°34′N 126°58′E / 37°34′N 126°58′E / 37.567; 126.967
Country South Korea[1]
RegionSeoul Capital Area
Districts
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • MayorPark Won-soon (Democratic)
 • BodySeoul Metropolitan Government
Seoul Metropolitan Council
 • National Representation
 - National Assembly
49 / 300
16.3% (total seats)
49 / 253
19.4% (constituency seats)
Area[2]
 • Special City605.21 km2 (233.67 sq mi)
Elevation38 m (125 ft)
Population (2018[3])
 • Special City9,838,892
 • Density16,000/km2 (42,000/sq mi)
 • Metro25,600,000
 • Demonym서울 사람 (Seoul saram), 서울시민 (Seoul-simin), Seoulite
 • DialectGyeonggi
BirdKorean magpie
ColorSeoul Red[4]
FlowerForsythia
FontSeoul fonts (Seoul Hangang and Seoul Namsan)[5]
MascotHaechi
Slogan"I·SEOUL·U"[6]
Song"S.E.O.U.L"
TreeGinkgo
GDP PPP (Special City)US$717 billion[7]
GDP PPP per capita (Special City)US$ 65,126[8][9]
Websiteseoul.go.kr
Seoul
Seoul in Hangul (RS).svg
"Seoul" in hangul
Hangul서울
Revised RomanizationSeoul
McCune–ReischauerSŏul
Seoul Special Metropolitan City
Hangul서울
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSeoul Teukbyeolsi
McCune–ReischauerSŏul T'ŭkpyŏlsi

Seoul (l/, like soul; Korean: 서울 [sʌ.ul] (About this sound listen); literal translation: "Capital"), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital[10] and largest metropolis of South Korea.[1] With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area, home to roughly half of the country's population. [11][12] Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris.[13][14]

Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BC by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The city was later designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city. As with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine, Namhansanseong and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty.[15] More recently, Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction–major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, and the Parc1 Tower. Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. Also the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014,[16] making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism.[17]

Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from a South Korean economic boom called the Miracle on the Han River, which transformed it to the world's 4th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$845.9 billion[18] in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors generally reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years (2005–2013) by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita (PPP) in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.[19][20][21] With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City,[22] the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung,[23] LG, and Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences.[24] Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, and more recently the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit.

Etymology

The city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong (Hangul위례성; Hanja慰禮城, during the Baekje era), Hanyang (한양; 漢陽, during the Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성; 漢城, during the Joseon era), Keijō (경성; 京城, during the colonial era).[25]

During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" (漢城) was renamed to "Keijō" (京城) by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja '' (a transliteration of an ancient Korean word "Han" () meaning "China"), which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China".[26]

Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", which is believed to be derived from the word Seorabeol (Hangul서라벌; Hanja徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.[27]

Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language). On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government arbitrarily changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng (simplified Chinese: 汉城; traditional Chinese: 漢城; pinyin: Hànchéng), which had not fallen out of common use, to Shou'er (simplified Chinese: 首尔; traditional Chinese: 首爾; pinyin: Shǒu'ěr).[28][29][30]

Other Languages
Acèh: Seoul
Afrikaans: Seoel
Alemannisch: Seoul
አማርኛ: ሶውል
العربية: سول
aragonés: Seúl
অসমীয়া: ছিউল
asturianu: Seúl
Avañe'ẽ: Seúl
azərbaycanca: Seul
تۆرکجه: سئول
বাংলা: সিউল
Bahasa Banjar: Seoul
башҡортса: Сеул
беларуская: Сеул
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэул
भोजपुरी: सियोल
Bislama: Seoul
български: Сеул
བོད་ཡིག: སེ་ཨུལ།
bosanski: Seoul
brezhoneg: Seoul
буряад: Сеул
català: Seül
Чӑвашла: Сеул
Cebuano: Seoul
čeština: Soul
Chi-Chewa: Seoul
chiShona: Seoul
Cymraeg: Seoul
dansk: Seoul
Deutsch: Seoul
dolnoserbski: Soul
eesti: Soul
Ελληνικά: Σεούλ
español: Seúl
Esperanto: Seulo
estremeñu: Seúl
euskara: Seul
فارسی: سئول
Fiji Hindi: Seoul
føroyskt: Seoul
français: Séoul
Frysk: Seoel
Gaeilge: Súl
Gagauz: Seul
Gàidhlig: Seoul
galego: Seúl
贛語: 首爾
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Seoul
한국어: 서울특별시
Hausa: Seoul
հայերեն: Սեուլ
हिन्दी: सियोल
hornjoserbsce: Seoul
hrvatski: Seul
Ido: Seoul
Ilokano: Seoul
Bahasa Indonesia: Seoul
interlingua: Seoul
Interlingue: Seoul
Ирон: Сеул
íslenska: Seúl
italiano: Seul
עברית: סיאול
Basa Jawa: Seoul
kalaallisut: Seoul
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸೌಲ್
ქართული: სეული
kaszëbsczi: Seul
қазақша: Сеул
kernowek: Seoul
Kiswahili: Seoul
Kongo: Seoul
Kreyòl ayisyen: Seoul
kurdî: Sêûl
Кыргызча: Сеул
Ladino: Seul
лезги: Сеул
لۊری شومالی: سئوٙل
Latina: Seulum
latviešu: Seula
Lëtzebuergesch: Seoul
lietuvių: Seulas
Ligure: Seoul
Limburgs: Seoel
lingála: Sɔul
lumbaart: Seoul
magyar: Szöul
македонски: Сеул
മലയാളം: സോൾ
Māori: Seoul
मराठी: सोल
მარგალური: სეული
مصرى: سول
Bahasa Melayu: Seoul
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Seoul
Mirandés: Seul
монгол: Сөүл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆိုးလ်မြို့
Nāhuatl: Seul
Dorerin Naoero: Seoul
Nederlands: Seoel
नेपाली: सोल
नेपाल भाषा: सोल
нохчийн: Сеул
Nordfriisk: Seoul
Norfuk / Pitkern: Soel
norsk: Seoul
norsk nynorsk: Seoul
occitan: Seol
олык марий: Сеул
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Seul
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿਓਲ
پنجابی: سیول
Papiamentu: Seoul
پښتو: سيول
Patois: Siol
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សេអ៊ូល
Picard: Séoul
Piemontèis: Seoul
Tok Pisin: Sol
polski: Seul
português: Seul
Qaraqalpaqsha: Seul
qırımtatarca: Seul
română: Seul
rumantsch: Seoul
Runa Simi: Siyul
русиньскый: Соул
русский: Сеул
саха тыла: Сеул
Scots: Seoul
shqip: Seuli
sicilianu: Seoul
Simple English: Seoul
slovenčina: Soul
slovenščina: Seul
ślůnski: Seul
Soomaaliga: Seoul
کوردی: سێئول
српски / srpski: Сеул
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Seul
Basa Sunda: Seoul
svenska: Seoul
Tagalog: Seoul
தமிழ்: சியோல்
Taqbaylit: Seyul
tarandíne: Seul
татарча/tatarça: Seul
ไทย: โซล
тоҷикӣ: Сеул
Türkçe: Seul
Türkmençe: Seul
українська: Сеул
اردو: سؤل
Vahcuengh: Soujwj
vèneto: Seul
vepsän kel’: Seul
Tiếng Việt: Seoul
Volapük: Söul
Võro: Sŏul
Winaray: Seoul
吴语: 首尔
ייִדיש: סעאל
Yorùbá: Seoul
粵語: 首爾
Zazaki: Seul
žemaitėška: Seuls
中文: 首爾
डोटेली: सियोल
ГӀалгӀай: Сеул
Kabɩyɛ: Sewuuli
Lingua Franca Nova: Seoul