Semi-presidential system

Forms of government.svg
Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
  Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature
  Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature
  Semi-presidential republics with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the legislature, who is appointed by the president
  Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial/non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive

Monarchical forms of government:
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial/non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive and/or legislative power
  Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive

  One-party states where the dominant role of a political party is codified in the constitution
  Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorship)
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional government or unclear political situations)

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive (the powers, limitations differ in different parliamentary republics, that this type of president would have tended to be 'reserve'/emergency and non-partisan in nature), figurehead (a president in a dual executive system also has political powers), and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.[1][2][3][4]

While the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry[5] and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger,[6] both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958).[1][2][3][4]


There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism.

Under the premier-presidential system, the Prime Minister and Cabinet are exclusively accountable to Parliament. The Parliament chooses the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and only the Parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The President does not have the right to dismiss or appoint the Prime Minister or the Cabinet.This system is much closer to pure parliamentarism. This subtype is used in Burkina Faso, Cape Verde,[7] East Timor,[7][8] Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, Niger, Poland,[9] Romania, São Tomé and Príncipe,[7] Sri Lanka and Ukraine (since 2014; previously, between 2006 and 2010).[10][11]

Under the president-parliamentary system, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the parliament. The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the support of a parliamentary majority for his choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them, or the parliament can remove them by a vote of no confidence. This form of semi-presidentialism is much closer to pure presidentialism. It is used in France, Guinea-Bissau,[7] Mozambique, Namibia, Portugal, Russia, Senegal and Taiwan. It was also used in Ukraine, first between 1996 and 2005, and again from 2010 to 2014, Georgia between 2004 and 2013, and in Germany during the Weimarer Republik (Weimar Republic), as the constitutional regime between 1919 and 1933 is called unofficially.[10][11]

In the parliamentary-presidential system the president is appointed by the legislature and is not directly elected by the people. The president is both head of state and head of government; the role of a separate head of government, for example a prime minister, does not exist. The members of the cabinet are not members of the legislative branch.[citation needed]

Other Languages
Avañe'ẽ: Mburuvichavy rape
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pan Chúng-thúng-chṳ
Bahasa Indonesia: Sistem semipresidensial
日本語: 半大統領制
norsk nynorsk: Semipresidentialisme
Simple English: Semi-presidential system
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Polupredsjednički sistem
粵語: 半總統制
中文: 半总统制