Saxophone

Saxophone
Yamaha Saxophone YAS-62.tif
Woodwind instrument
Classification

Hornbostel–Sachs classification422.212-71
(Single-reeded aerophone with keys)
Inventor(s)Adolphe Sax
Developed28 June 1846[1]
Playing range

Sax range.svg

Related instruments

Military band family:


Orchestral family:


Other saxophones:

Musicians

Adolphe Sax, the inventor of the saxophone

The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet.[2] Like the clarinet, saxophones have holes in the instrument which the player closes using a system of key mechanisms. When the player presses a key, a pad either covers a hole or lifts off a hole, lowering or raising the pitch, respectively.

The saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840.[2][3] Adolphe Sax wanted to create a group or series of instruments that would be the most powerful and vocal of the woodwinds, and the most adaptive of the brass instruments, that would fill the vacant middle ground between the two sections. Sax patented the saxophone on June 28, 1846, in two groups of seven instruments each. Each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. The series pitched in B and E, designed for military bands, have proved popular and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. Instruments from the so-called "orchestral" series, pitched in C and F, never gained a foothold, and the B and E instruments have now replaced the C and F instruments when the saxophone is used in an orchestra.

The saxophone is used in classical music (such as concert bands, chamber music, solo repertoire, and, occasionally, orchestras), military bands, marching bands, and jazz (such as big bands and jazz combos). The saxophone is also used as a soloing and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists.[2]

History

The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, flautist, and clarinetist. Born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. Prior to his work on the saxophone, he had made several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics and extending its lower range. Sax was also a maker of the then-popular ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument. His experience with these two instruments allowed him to develop the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and the agility of a woodwind. He wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. An instrument that overblows at the octave has identical fingering for both registers.

Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, conical brass body like an ophicleide, and some acoustic properties of both the horn and the clarinet.[clarification needed]

Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, a 15-year patent for the instrument on June 28, 1846.[4] The patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each, and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered "orchestral", there is no evidence that Sax intended this. As only three percent of Sax's surviving production were pitched in F and C, and as contemporary composers used the E alto and B bass saxophone freely in orchestral music, it is almost certain that Sax experimented to find the most suitable keys for these instruments, settling upon instruments alternating between E and B rather than those pitched in F or C, for reasons of tone and economy (the saxophones were the most expensive wind instruments of their day). The C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch. All the instruments were given an initial written range from the B below the treble staff to the F, one space above the three ledger lines above staff, giving each saxophone a range of two and a half octaves.

Sax's patent expired in 1866;[5] thereafter, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design and keywork. The first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification. This extension is now commonplace in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows a player to play faster and more easily. A player may also use alternate fingerings to bend the pitch. Some of the alternate fingerings are good for trilling, scales, and wide interval jumps.[6]

Sax's original keywork, which was based on the Triebert system 3 oboe for the left hand and the Boehm clarinet for the right, was simplistic and made playing some legato passages and wide intervals extremely difficult to finger, so numerous developers added extra keys and alternate fingerings to make chromatic playing less difficult. While early saxophones had two separate octave vents to assist in the playing of the upper registers just as modern instruments do, players of Sax's original design had to operate these via two separate octave keys operated by the left thumb. A substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones. Further developments were made by Selmer in the 1930s and '40s, including offsetting tone holes and a revamping of the octave key mechanism, beginning with balanced action instruments and continuing through their celebrated Mark VI line.[citation needed] One of the most radical, however temporary, revisions of saxophone keywork was made in the 1950s by M. Houvenaghel of Paris, who completely redeveloped the mechanics of the system to allow a number of notes (C, B, A, G, F and E) to be flattened by a semitone simply by pressing the right middle finger. This enables a chromatic scale to be played over two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit.[7] However, this keywork never gained much popularity, and is no longer in use.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Saxofoon
Alemannisch: Saxophon
አማርኛ: ሳክሶፎን
العربية: ساكسفون
asturianu: Saxofón
azərbaycanca: Saksofon
تۆرکجه: ساکسیفون
Bân-lâm-gú: Saxophone
беларуская: Саксафон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Саксафон
български: Саксофон
bosanski: Saksofon
català: Saxòfon
Чӑвашла: Саксофон
čeština: Saxofon
Cymraeg: Sacsoffon
dansk: Saxofon
Deutsch: Saxophon
eesti: Saksofon
Ελληνικά: Σαξόφωνο
español: Saxofón
Esperanto: Saksofono
euskara: Saxofoi
فارسی: ساکسوفون
français: Saxophone
Frysk: Saksofoan
Gaeilge: Sacsafón
Gàidhlig: Sacsafòn
galego: Saxofón
한국어: 색소폰
հայերեն: Սաքսոֆոն
hrvatski: Saksofon
Bahasa Indonesia: Saksofon
íslenska: Saxófónn
italiano: Sassofono
עברית: סקסופון
Basa Jawa: Saksofon
ქართული: საქსოფონი
қазақша: Саксофон
Latina: Saxophonum
latviešu: Saksofons
Lëtzebuergesch: Saxophon
lietuvių: Saksofonas
magyar: Szaxofon
македонски: Саксофон
മലയാളം: സാക്സഫോൺ
Bahasa Melayu: Saksofon
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆက်ဆိုဟွန်း
Nederlands: Saxofoon
Nedersaksies: Saxofoon
norsk: Saksofon
norsk nynorsk: Saksofon
occitan: Saxofòn
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Saksofon
polski: Saksofon
português: Saxofone
română: Saxofon
rumantsch: Saxofon
Runa Simi: Saksuphun
русский: Саксофон
Scots: Saxophone
sicilianu: Sassòfunu
Simple English: Saxophone
slovenčina: Saxofón
slovenščina: Saksofon
کوردی: ساکسفۆن
српски / srpski: Саксофон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saksofon
suomi: Saksofoni
svenska: Saxofon
Türkçe: Saksofon
українська: Саксофон
vèneto: Sasòfono
Tiếng Việt: Saxophone
West-Vlams: Saxofong
Winaray: Saxophone
粵語: 色士風
中文: 薩克斯風
Kabɩyɛ: Sakɩsofonɩ