Savanna

Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia demonstrating the high tree density and regular spacing characteristic of many savannas

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses.[1][2][3]

Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density.[4] It is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in many savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests.[5][6][7][8] The South American savanna types cerrado sensu stricto and cerrado dense typically have densities of trees similar to or higher than that found in South American tropical forests,[5][7][8] with savanna ranging from 800–3300 trees per hectare (trees/ha) and adjacent forests with 800–2000 trees/ha. Similarly Guinean savanna has 129 trees/ha, compared to 103 for riparian forest,[6] while Eastern Australian sclerophyll forests have average tree densities of approximately 100 per hectare, comparable to savannas in the same region.[9]

Savannas are also characterised by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season; they are associated with several types of biomes, and are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland. Savanna covers approximately 20% of the Earth's land area.[10]

Etymology

The word originally entered English in 1555[11] as the Latin Zauana,[13] equivalent in the orthography of the times to zavana (see history of V). Peter Martyr reported it as the local name for the plain around Comagre, the court of the cacique Carlos in present-day Panama. The accounts are inexact,[15] but this is usually placed in present-day Madugandí[16] or at points on the nearby Guna Yala coast opposite Ustupo[17] or on Point Mosquitos.[18] These areas are now either given over to modern cropland or jungle.[19]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Savanne
العربية: سافانا
asturianu: Sabana
azərbaycanca: Savannalar
беларуская: Саванна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Саванна
български: Савана
bosanski: Savana
brezhoneg: Savanenn
català: Sabana
Чӑвашла: Саванна
Cebuano: Savanna
čeština: Savana
dansk: Savanne
Deutsch: Savanne
dolnoserbski: Sawana
eesti: Savann
Ελληνικά: Σαβάνα
español: Sabana
Esperanto: Savano
euskara: Sabana
فارسی: گرم‌دشت
français: Savane
Frysk: Savanne
Gaeilge: Sabhána
Gàidhlig: Savannah
galego: Sabana
한국어: 사바나
հայերեն: Սավաննա
हिन्दी: सवाना
hornjoserbsce: Sawana
hrvatski: Savana
Ido: Savano
Bahasa Indonesia: Sabana
íslenska: Grasslétta
italiano: Savana
עברית: סוואנה
Jawa: Sabana
ქართული: სავანა
қазақша: Саванна
Kiswahili: Savana
Kreyòl ayisyen: Savann
Кыргызча: Саванна
Latina: Savana
latviešu: Savanna
lietuvių: Savana
Limburgs: Savanne
lingála: Esóbé
magyar: Szavanna
македонски: Савана
മലയാളം: സവേന
Bahasa Melayu: Savana
Mirandés: Sabana
norsk: Savanne
norsk nynorsk: Savanne
occitan: Savana
پنجابی: سوانا
polski: Sawanna
português: Savana
română: Savană
русский: Саванна
Scots: Savanna
shqip: Savana
සිංහල: සවානා
Simple English: Savanna
slovenčina: Savana
slovenščina: Savana
Soomaaliga: Dhuldaaqsiin
کوردی: ساڤانا
српски / srpski: Савана
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Savana
Sunda: Sabana
suomi: Savanni
svenska: Savann
Tagalog: Sabana
Türkçe: Savan
українська: Савана
Tiếng Việt: Trảng cỏ
文言: 莽原氣候
吴语: 疏林草原
Zazaki: Savanna
žemaitėška: Savana
中文: 疏林草原