Saturn

Saturn Saturn symbol.svg
Saturn during Equinox.jpg
Saturn in natural color approaching equinox, photographed by Cassini in July 2008. The dot in the bottom left corner is Titan.
Designations
Pronunciation n/ ( About this sound  listen) [1]
Named after
Saturn
Adjectives Saturnian, Cronian
Orbital characteristics [5]
Epoch J2000.0
Aphelion 1,514.50 million km (10.1238 AU)
Perihelion 1,352.55 million km (9.0412 AU)
1,433.53 million km (9.5826 AU)
Eccentricity 0.0565
  • 29.4571  yr
  • 10,759.22 d
  • 24,491.07 Saturnian solar days [2]
378.09 days
9.68 km/s (6.01 mi/s)
317.020° [3]
Inclination
113.665°
339.392° [3]
Known satellites 62 with formal designations; innumerable additional moonlets. [5]
Physical characteristics [5]
Mean radius
58,232 km (36,184 mi) [a]
Equatorial radius
  • 60,268 km (37,449 mi) [a]
  • 9.449 Earths
Polar radius
  • 54,364 km (33,780 mi) [a]
  • 8.552 Earths
Flattening 0.09796
  • 4.27×1010 km2 (1.65×1010 sq mi) [6] [a]
  • 83.703 Earths
Volume
  • 8.2713×1014 km3 (1.9844×1014 cu mi) [a]
  • 763.59 Earths
Mass
  • 5.6834×1026 kg (1.2530×1027 lb)
  • 95.159 Earths
Mean density
0.687  g/ cm3 (0.0248  lb/cu in) [b] (less than water)
0.210 I/MR2 estimate
35.5 km/s (22.1 mi/s) [a]
10.55 hours [7]
(10 hr 33 min)
Equatorial rotation velocity
9.87 km/s (6.13 mi/s; 35,500 km/h) [a]
26.73° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
40.589°; 2h 42m 21s
North pole declination
83.537°
Albedo
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar 134  K (−139  °C)
0.1 bar 84  K (−189  °C)
+1.47 to −0.24 [8]
14.5″ to 20.1″ (excludes rings)
Atmosphere [5]
Surface pressure
140 kPa [9]
59.5 km (37.0 mi)
Composition by volume

by volume:

96.3±2.4% hydrogen (H
2
)
3.25±2.4% helium (He)
0.45±0.2% methane (CH
4
)
0.0125±0.0075% ammonia (NH
3
)
0.0110±0.0058% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0007±0.00015% ethane (C
2
H
6
)
Ices:

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. [10] [11] It has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, but with its larger volume Saturn is over 95 times more massive. [12] [13] [14] Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture; its astronomical symbol (♄) represents the god's sickle.

Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock ( silicon and oxygen compounds). This core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, and finally a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field, which is weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's. [15] The outer atmosphere is generally bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h (1,100 mph), higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune. [16]

The planet's most famous feature is its prominent ring system that is composed mostly of ice particles, with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. At least 62 moons [17] are known to orbit Saturn, of which 53 are officially named. This does not include the hundreds of moonlets in the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and the second-largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less massive, and is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere. [18]

Physical characteristics

Composite image comparing the sizes of Saturn and Earth

Saturn is a gas giant because it is predominantly composed of hydrogen and helium. It lacks a definite surface, though it may have a solid core. [19] Saturn's rotation causes it to have the shape of an oblate spheroid; that is, it is flattened at the poles and bulges at its equator. Its equatorial and polar radii differ by almost 10%: 60,268 km versus 54,364 km. [5] Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are also oblate but to a lesser extent. Saturn is the only planet of the Solar System that is less dense than water—about 30% less. [20] Although Saturn's core is considerably denser than water, the average specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the atmosphere. Jupiter has 318 times the Earth's mass, [21] and Saturn is 95 times the mass of the Earth. [5] Together, Jupiter and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. [22]

On 8 January 2015, NASA reported that a team of scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory determined the barycenter of the planet Saturn and its family of moons to within 4 km (2.5 mi) using data from an experiment conducted with the Cassini spacecraft and the Very Large Baseline Array. [23]

Internal structure

Diagram of Saturn, to scale

Despite consisting mostly of hydrogen and helium, most of Saturn's mass is not in the gas phase, because hydrogen becomes a non-ideal liquid when the density is above 0.01 g/cm3, which is reached at a radius containing 99.9% of Saturn's mass. The temperature, pressure, and density inside Saturn all rise steadily toward the core, which causes hydrogen to be a metal in the deeper layers. [22]

Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded by hydrogen and helium with trace amounts of various volatiles. [24] This core is similar in composition to the Earth, but more dense. Examination of Saturn's gravitational moment, in combination with physical models of the interior, has allowed constraints to be placed on the mass of Saturn's core. In 2004, scientists estimated that the core must be 9–22 times the mass of the Earth, [25] [26] which corresponds to a diameter of about 25,000 km. [27] This is surrounded by a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, followed by a liquid layer of helium-saturated molecular hydrogen that gradually transitions to a gas with increasing altitude. The outermost layer spans 1,000 km and consists of gas. [28] [29] [30]

Saturn has a hot interior, reaching 11,700 °C at its core, and it radiates 2.5 times more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Jupiter's thermal energy is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism of slow gravitational compression, but such a process alone may not be sufficient to explain heat production for Saturn, because it is less massive. An alternative or additional mechanism may be generation of heat through the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior. As the droplets descend through the lower-density hydrogen, the process releases heat by friction and leaves Saturn's outer layers depleted of helium. [31] [32] These descending droplets may have accumulated into a helium shell surrounding the core. [24] Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur on Saturn, as well as on Jupiter [33] and ice giants Uranus and Neptune. [34]

Atmosphere

Methane bands circle Saturn. The moon Dione hangs below the rings to the right.

The outer atmosphere of Saturn contains 96.3% molecular hydrogen and 3.25% helium by volume. [35] The proportion of helium is significantly deficient compared to the abundance of this element in the Sun. [24] The quantity of elements heavier than helium ( metallicity) is not known precisely, but the proportions are assumed to match the primordial abundances from the formation of the Solar System. The total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19–31 times the mass of the Earth, with a significant fraction located in Saturn's core region. [36]

Trace amounts of ammonia, acetylene, ethane, propane, phosphine and methane have been detected in Saturn's atmosphere. [37] [38] [39] The upper clouds are composed of ammonia crystals, while the lower level clouds appear to consist of either ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) or water. [40] Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causes methane photolysis in the upper atmosphere, leading to a series of hydrocarbon chemical reactions with the resulting products being carried downward by eddies and diffusion. This photochemical cycle is modulated by Saturn's annual seasonal cycle. [39]

Cloud layers

A global storm girdles the planet in 2011. The head of the storm (bright area) passes the tail circling around the left limb.

Saturn's atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter's, but Saturn's bands are much fainter and are much wider near the equator. The nomenclature used to describe these bands is the same as on Jupiter. Saturn's finer cloud patterns were not observed until the flybys of the Voyager spacecraft during the 1980s. Since then, Earth-based telescopy has improved to the point where regular observations can be made. [41]

The composition of the clouds varies with depth and increasing pressure. In the upper cloud layers, with the temperature in the range 100–160 K and pressures extending between 0.5–2 bar, the clouds consist of ammonia ice. Water ice clouds begin at a level where the pressure is about 2.5 bar and extend down to 9.5 bar, where temperatures range from 185–270 K. Intermixed in this layer is a band of ammonium hydrosulfide ice, lying in the pressure range 3–6 bar with temperatures of 190–235 K. Finally, the lower layers, where pressures are between 10–20 bar and temperatures are 270–330 K, contains a region of water droplets with ammonia in aqueous solution. [42]

Saturn's usually bland atmosphere occasionally exhibits long-lived ovals and other features common on Jupiter. In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope imaged an enormous white cloud near Saturn's equator that was not present during the Voyager encounters, and in 1994 another smaller storm was observed. The 1990 storm was an example of a Great White Spot, a unique but short-lived phenomenon that occurs once every Saturnian year, roughly every 30 Earth years, around the time of the northern hemisphere's summer solstice. [43] Previous Great White Spots were observed in 1876, 1903, 1933 and 1960, with the 1933 storm being the most famous. If the periodicity is maintained, another storm will occur in about 2020. [44]

The winds on Saturn are the second fastest among the Solar System's planets, after Neptune's. Voyager data indicate peak easterly winds of 500 m/s (1800 km/h). [45] In images from the Cassini spacecraft during 2007, Saturn's northern hemisphere displayed a bright blue hue, similar to Uranus. The color was most likely caused by Rayleigh scattering. [46] Thermography has shown that Saturn's south pole has a warm polar vortex, the only known example of such a phenomenon in the Solar System. [47] Whereas temperatures on Saturn are normally −185 °C, temperatures on the vortex often reach as high as −122 °C, suspected to be the warmest spot on Saturn. [47]

North pole hexagonal cloud pattern

Saturn's north pole ( IR;animation)

A persisting hexagonal wave pattern around the north polar vortex in the atmosphere at about 78°N was first noted in the Voyager images. [48] [49] [50] The sides of the hexagon are each about 13,800 km (8,600 mi) long, which is longer than the diameter of the Earth. [51] The entire structure rotates with a period of 10h 39m 24s (the same period as that of the planet's radio emissions) which is assumed to be equal to the period of rotation of Saturn's interior. [52] The hexagonal feature does not shift in longitude like the other clouds in the visible atmosphere. [53] The pattern's origin is a matter of much speculation. Most scientists think it is a standing wave pattern in the atmosphere. Polygonal shapes have been replicated in the laboratory through differential rotation of fluids. [54] [55]

South pole vortex

Saturn's south pole

HST imaging of the south polar region indicates the presence of a jet stream, but no strong polar vortex nor any hexagonal standing wave. [56] NASA reported in November 2006 that Cassini had observed a " hurricane-like" storm locked to the south pole that had a clearly defined eyewall. [57] [58] Eyewall clouds had not previously been seen on any planet other than Earth. For example, images from the Galileo spacecraft did not show an eyewall in the Great Red Spot of Jupiter. [59]

The south pole storm may have been present for billions of years. [60] This vortex is comparable to the size of Earth, and it has winds of 550 km/h. [60]

Other features

Cassini has observed a series of cloud features nicknamed "String of Pearls" found in northern latitudes. These features are cloud clearings that reside in deeper cloud layers. [61]

Magnetosphere

Polar aurorae on Saturn
Auroral lights at Saturn’s north pole [62]

Saturn has an intrinsic magnetic field that has a simple, symmetric shape – a magnetic dipole. Its strength at the equator – 0.2  gauss (20  µT) – is approximately one twentieth of that of the field around Jupiter and slightly weaker than Earth's magnetic field. [15] As a result, Saturn's magnetosphere is much smaller than Jupiter's. [63] When Voyager 2 entered the magnetosphere, the solar wind pressure was high and the magnetosphere extended only 19 Saturn radii, or 1.1 million km (712,000 mi), [64] although it enlarged within several hours, and remained so for about three days. [65] Most probably, the magnetic field is generated similarly to that of Jupiter – by currents in the liquid metallic-hydrogen layer called a metallic-hydrogen dynamo. [63] This magnetosphere is efficient at deflecting the solar wind particles from the Sun. The moon Titan orbits within the outer part of Saturn's magnetosphere and contributes plasma from the ionized particles in Titan's outer atmosphere. [15] Saturn's magnetosphere, like Earth's, produces aurorae. [66]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Saturn (Planet)
አማርኛ: ማህፈድ
العربية: زحل
armãneashti: Saturn
অসমীয়া: শনি গ্ৰহ
Avañe'ẽ: Satúyno
azərbaycanca: Saturn (planet)
বাংলা: শনি গ্রহ
Bân-lâm-gú: Thó͘-chheⁿ
Basa Banyumasan: Saturnus
башҡортса: Сатурн
беларуская: Сатурн (планета)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сатурн
भोजपुरी: शनि ग्रह
български: Сатурн (планета)
Boarisch: Saturn (Planet)
བོད་ཡིག: སྤེན་པ།
bosanski: Saturn
Чӑвашла: Сатурн
čeština: Saturn (planeta)
corsu: Saturnu
davvisámegiella: Saturn
Diné bizaad: Séetin
eesti: Saturn
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Satûren
estremeñu: Saturnu (praneta)
euskara: Saturno
فارسی: زحل
Fiji Hindi: Sanigrah
føroyskt: Saturn
Frysk: Saturnus
Gàidhlig: Satarn
galego: Saturno
贛語: 土星
ગુજરાતી: શનિ (ગ્રહ)
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thú-sên
한국어: 토성
Hawaiʻi: Makulu
हिन्दी: शनि (ग्रह)
hornjoserbsce: Saturn
hrvatski: Saturn
Ido: Saturno
Ilokano: Saturno
Bahasa Indonesia: Saturnus
interlingua: Saturno (planeta)
isiZulu: USarthana
עברית: שבתאי
Basa Jawa: Saturnus
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಶನಿ (ಗ್ರಹ)
Kapampangan: Saturn
ქართული: სატურნი
kaszëbsczi: Saturna
қазақша: Сатурн
kernowek: Sadorn (planet)
Kiswahili: Zohali
коми: Сатурн
Kongo: Saturne
Kreyòl ayisyen: Satin
Kurdî: Keywan
Кыргызча: Сатурн
лезги: Сатурн
Lëtzebuergesch: Saturn (Planéit)
lietuvių: Saturnas
lingála: Saturne
Livvinkarjala: Saturnus
la .lojban.: saturn
magyar: Szaturnusz
македонски: Сатурн (планета)
Malagasy: Satorina
മലയാളം: ശനി
मराठी: शनी ग्रह
مصرى: زحل
مازِرونی: زحل
Bahasa Melayu: Zuhal
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tū-sĭng
Mirandés: Saturno
монгол: Санчир
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စနေဂြိုဟ်
Nederlands: Saturnus (planeet)
Nedersaksies: Saturnus (planeet)
नेपाली: शनिग्रह
नेपाल भाषा: शनि
日本語: 土星
Napulitano: Saturno
нохчийн: Сатурн
Nordfriisk: Saturnus
norsk: Saturn
norsk nynorsk: Planeten Saturn
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଶନି
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Saturn
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਨੀ (ਗ੍ਰਹਿ)
پنجابی: زحل
پښتو: زحل
Patois: Satoern
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភពសៅរ៍
Piemontèis: Saturn (pianeta)
Plattdüütsch: Saturn (Planet)
polski: Saturn
português: Saturno (planeta)
Qaraqalpaqsha: Saturn (planeta)
Ripoarisch: Saturn
română: Saturn
rumantsch: Saturn (planet)
Runa Simi: Hawcha
русиньскый: Сатурн
русский: Сатурн
саха тыла: Сатурн
संस्कृतम्: शनिः
sardu: Saturnu
Scots: Saturn
Seeltersk: Saturn
shqip: Saturni
Simple English: Saturn
slovenčina: Saturn
slovenščina: Saturn
ślůnski: Saturn
Soomaaliga: Raage
کوردی: کەیوان
српски / srpski: Сатурн
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saturn
Basa Sunda: Saturnus
suomi: Saturnus
svenska: Saturnus
தமிழ்: சனி (கோள்)
татарча/tatarça: Сатурн (планета)
тоҷикӣ: Зуҳал
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏌᏓᏂ
Türkçe: Satürn
Türkmençe: Saturn
тыва дыл: Сатурн
українська: Сатурн (планета)
اردو: زحل
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ساتۇرن
Vahcuengh: Ndaundeiqnamh
vepsän kel’: Saturn (planet)
Tiếng Việt: Sao Thổ
Volapük: Saturn
Võro: Saturn
文言: 鎮星
West-Vlams: Saturnus (planete)
Winaray: Saturno
吴语: 土星
ייִדיש: סאטורן
Yorùbá: Sátúrnù
粵語: 土星
Zazaki: Saturn
žemaitėška: Satorns
中文: 土星
डोटेली: शनिग्रह