Sapporo

Sapporo
札幌市
Designated city
City of Sapporo[1]
Left to right, top to bottom: Mount Moiwa night view, Sapporo Clock Tower, Sapporo Beer Museum, Sapporo Station, Hokkaido University, Sapporo Dome, and Sapporo TV Tower seen from Odori Park
Left to right, top to bottom: Mount Moiwa night view, Sapporo Clock Tower, Sapporo Beer Museum, Sapporo Station, Hokkaido University, Sapporo Dome, and Sapporo TV Tower seen from Odori Park
Flag of Sapporo
Flag
Official seal of Sapporo
Emblem
Location of Sapporo in Hokkaido (Ishikari Subprefecture)
Location of Sapporo in Hokkaido (Ishikari Subprefecture)
Location of Ishikari Subprefecture in Hokkaido
Location of Ishikari Subprefecture in Hokkaido
Sapporo is located in Japan
Sapporo
Sapporo
Location in Japan
Sapporo is located in Asia
Sapporo
Sapporo
Sapporo (Asia)
Sapporo is located in Earth
Sapporo
Sapporo
Sapporo (Earth)
Coordinates: 43°4′N 141°21′E / 43°4′N 141°21′E / 43.067; 141.350
CountryJapan
RegionHokkaido
PrefectureHokkaido (Ishikari Subprefecture)
Government
 • MayorKatsuhiro Akimoto
Area
 • Total1,121.12 km2 (432.87 sq mi)
Population (September 30, 2016)
 • Total1,947,097
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
Symbols
 • TreeLilac
 • FlowerLily of the valley
 • BirdCommon cuckoo
Time zoneUTC+9 (JST)
City hall address2-1-1 Kita-ichijō-nishi, Chūō-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido
060-8611
Websitewww.city.sapporo.jp
Sapporo
Sapporo (Chinese characters).svg
"Sapporo" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji札幌
Hiraganaさっぽろ
Katakanaサッポロ
A view of Sapporo city and Hokkaidō University

Sapporo (札幌市, Sapporo-shi) is the fifth largest city of Japan by population, and the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is the capital city of Hokkaido Prefecture, and is an ordinance-designated city.

Sapporo hosted the 1972 Winter Olympics (the first ever held in Asia). Its annual Sapporo Snow Festival draws more than 2 million tourists from abroad.[2]

History

Early history

Before its establishment, the area occupied by Sapporo (known as the Ishikari Plain) was home to a number of indigenous Ainu settlements.[3] In 1866, at the end of the Edo period, construction began on a canal through the area, encouraging a number of early settlers to establish Sapporo village.[4] The settlement's name was taken from the Ainu language sat poro pet (サッ・ポロ・ペッ), and can be translated as "dry, great river".[5]

In 1868, the officially recognized year celebrated as the "birth" of Sapporo, the new Meiji government concluded that the existing administrative center of Hokkaido, which at the time was the port of Hakodate, was in an unsuitable location for defense and further development of the island. As a result, it was determined that a new capital on the Ishikari Plain should be established. The plain itself provided an unusually large expanse of flat, well drained land which is relatively uncommon in the otherwise mountainous geography of Hokkaido.

During 1870–1871, Kuroda Kiyotaka, vice-chairman of the Hokkaido Development Commission (Kaitaku-shi), approached the American government for assistance in developing the land. As a result, Horace Capron, Secretary of Agriculture under President Ulysses S. Grant, became an oyatoi gaikokujin and was appointed as a special advisor to the commission. Construction began around Odori Park, which still remains as a green ribbon of recreational land bisecting the central area of the city. The city closely followed a grid plan with streets at right-angles to form city blocks.

The continuing expansion of the Japanese into Hokkaido continued, mainly due to migration from the main island of Honshu immediately to the south, and the prosperity of Hokkaido and particularly its capital grew to the point that the Development Commission was deemed unnecessary and was abolished in 1882.

Edwin Dun (oyatoi gaikokujin) came to Sapporo to establish sheep and cattle ranches in 1876. He also demonstrated pig raising and the making of butter, cheese, ham and sausage. He was married twice, to Japanese women. He once went back to the US in 1883 but returned to Japan as a secretary of government.

William S. Clark (oyatoi gaikokujin), who was the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (now the University of Massachusetts Amherst), came to be the founding vice-president of the Sapporo Agricultural College (now Hokkaido University) for only eight months from 1876 to 1877. He taught academic subjects in science and lectured on the Bible as an "ethics" course, introducing Christian principles to the first entering class of the College.

In 1880, the entire area of Sapporo was renamed as "Sapporo-ku" (Sapporo Ward),[6] and a railroad between Sapporo and Temiya, Otaru was laid. That year the Hōheikan, a hotel and reception facility for visiting officials and dignitaries, was erected adjacent to the Odori Park. It was later moved to Nakajima Park where it remains today. Two years later, with the abolition of the Kaitaku-shi, Hokkaidō was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate, Sapporo, and Nemuro. The name of the urban district in Sapporo remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun. The office building of Sapporo-ku was also located in the urban district.[6]

Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in 1886, and Hokkaidō government office building, an American-neo-baroque-style structure with red bricks, constructed in 1888. The last squad of the Tondenhei, the soldiers pioneering Hokkaido, settled in the place where the area of Tonden in Kita-ku, Sapporo is currently located. Sapporo-ku administered surrounding Sapporo-gun until 1899, when the new district system was announced. After that year, Sapporo-ku was away from the control of Sapporo-gun.[6] The "ku" (district) enforced from 1899 was an autonomy which was a little bigger than towns, and smaller than cities. In Hokkaido at that time, Hakodate-ku and Otaru-ku also existed.[citation needed]

20th century

Sapporo city map in 1891
Odori Park in 1936

In 1907, the Tohoku Imperial University was established in Sendai Miyagi Prefecture, and Sapporo Agricultural College was controlled by the University. Parts of neighbouring villages including Sapporo Village, Naebo Village, Kami Shiroishi Village, and districts where the Tonden-hei had settled, were integrated into Sapporo-ku in 1910.

The Sapporo Streetcar was opened in 1918, and Hokkaido Imperial University was established in Sapporo-ku, as the fifth Imperial University in Japan. Another railroad operated in Sapporo, the Jōzankei Railroad, which was ultimately abolished in 1969.

In 1922, the new city system was announced by the Tokyo government, and Sapporo-ku was officially changed to Sapporo City.[4] The Sapporo Municipal Bus System was started in 1930. In 1937, Sapporo was chosen as the site of the 1940 Winter Olympics, but due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, this was cancelled the next year. Maruyama Town was integrated as a part of Chūō-ku in 1940, and the Okadama Airport was constructed in 1942.

During the last days of World War II, on July 14 and 15, 1945, 30 B-29 Superfortress bombers dropped 889 tons of E-46 500 lbs incendiary cluster bombs and 500 lbs T4E4 fragmentation cluster bombs into Sapporo at lunchtime in two separate air raids. In the resulting firestorm 190 civilians were killed, 6,788 were injured, 78,000 others remained homeless, and many structures burned for a total of 17.5 percent of the city destroyed as a part of Allied air raids on Hokkaido. The city was reconstructed after the war.

The first Sapporo Snow Festival was held in 1950. In the same year, adjacent Shiroishi Village was integrated into Sapporo City, rendered as a part of Shiroishi-ku, and Atsubetsu-ku.[7] In 1955, Kotoni Town, the entire Sapporo Village, and Shinoro Village were merged into Sapporo, becoming a part of the current Chūō-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Nishi-ku, and Teine-ku.[7] The expansion of Sapporo continued, with the merger of Toyohira Town in 1961, and Teine Town in 1967, each becoming a part of Toyohira-ku, Kiyota-ku, and Teine-ku.[7]

The ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary of the foundation of Sapporo and Hokkaido was held in 1968. The Sapporo Municipal Subway system was inaugurated in 1971, which made Sapporo the fourth city in Japan to have a subway system. From February 3 to 13, 1972, the 1972 Winter Olympics were held, the first Winter Olympics held in Asia.[4] On April 1 of the same year, Sapporo was designated as one of the cities designated by government ordinance, and seven wards were established.[7] The last ever public performance by the opera singer, Maria Callas, was in Sapporo at the Hokkaido Koseinenkin Kaikan on 11 November 1974.[8] The Sapporo Municipal Subway was expanded when the Tōzai line started operation in 1976, and the Tōhō line was opened in 1988. In 1989, Atsubetsu-ku and Teine-ku were separated from Shiroishi-ku and Nishi-ku. Annual events in Sapporo were started, such as the Pacific Music Festival in 1990, and Yosakoi Sōran Festival in 1992. A professional football club, Consadole Sapporo, was established in 1996. In 1997, Kiyota-ku was separated from Toyohira-ku. In the same year, Hokkaidō Takushoku Bank, a Hokkaido-based bank with headquarters in Odori, went bankrupt.[9]

21st century

The 34th G8 summit protest march in 2008

In 2001 the construction of the Sapporo Dome was completed, and in 2002 the Dome hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup; Germany vs Saudi Arabia, Argentina vs England and Italy vs Ecuador, all of which were in the first round. Fumio Ueda, was elected as Sapporo mayor for the first time in 2003. Sapporo became the home to a Nippon Professional Baseball team, Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters, in 2004, which won the 2006 Japan Series, and the victory parade was held on Ekimae-Dōri (a street in front of Sapporo Station) in February 2007.

The 34th G8 summit took place in Tōyako in 2008, and a number of people including anti-globalisation activists marched in the heart of the city to protest. Police officers were gathered in Sapporo from all over Japan, and the news reported that four people were arrested in the demonstrations.[10] The Hokkaidō Shinkansen line, which currently connects Honshu to Hakodate through the Seikan Tunnel, is planned to link to Sapporo by 2030.[11]

Other Languages
Acèh: Sapporo
адыгабзэ: Саппоро
Afrikaans: Sapporo
አማርኛ: ሳፖሮ
العربية: سابورو
asturianu: Sapporo
azərbaycanca: Sapporo
تۆرکجه: ساپورو
bamanankan: Sapporo
Bân-lâm-gú: Sapporo-chhī
башҡортса: Саппоро
беларуская: Сапара
български: Сапоро
bosanski: Sapporo
brezhoneg: Sapporo
буряад: Саппоро
català: Sapporo
čeština: Sapporo
Chamoru: Sapporo
Chi-Chewa: Sapporo
chiTumbuka: Sapporo
Cymraeg: Sapporo
dansk: Sapporo
Deutsch: Sapporo
dolnoserbski: Sapporo
eesti: Sapporo
Ελληνικά: Σαππόρο
эрзянь: Саппоро
español: Sapporo
Esperanto: Sapporo
euskara: Sapporo
eʋegbe: Sapporo
فارسی: ساپورو
føroyskt: Sapporo
français: Sapporo
Frysk: Sapporo
Gaeilge: Sapporo
galego: Sapporo
Gĩkũyũ: Sapporo
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌰𐍀𐍀𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌰𐌿
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sapporo-sṳ
한국어: 삿포로시
հայերեն: Սապորո
हिन्दी: साप्पोरो
hrvatski: Sapporo
Ido: Sapporo
Bahasa Indonesia: Sapporo
Interlingue: Sapporo
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓴᑉᐳᕈ
Iñupiak: Sapporo
Ирон: Саппоро
íslenska: Sapporo
italiano: Sapporo
עברית: סאפורו
Basa Jawa: Sapporo
kalaallisut: Sapporo
ქართული: საპორო
қазақша: Саппоро
Latina: Sapporum
latviešu: Saporo
Lëtzebuergesch: Sapporo
lietuvių: Saporas
Luganda: Sapporo
magyar: Szapporo
മലയാളം: സാപ്പൊറൊ
Māori: Sapporo
मराठी: सप्पोरो
მარგალური: საპორო
مازِرونی: ساپورو
Bahasa Melayu: Sapporo
Nederlands: Sapporo
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᓴᐳᐅ
日本語: 札幌市
нохчийн: Саппоро
norsk: Sapporo
norsk nynorsk: Sapporo
پنجابی: سیپورو
Picard: Sapporo
polski: Sapporo
Ποντιακά: Σαππόρο
português: Sapporo
română: Sapporo
Runa Simi: Sapporo
русский: Саппоро
саха тыла: Саппоро
Scots: Sapporo
Setswana: Sapporo
Simple English: Sapporo
slovenčina: Sapporo
slovenščina: Sapporo
српски / srpski: Сапоро
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sapporo
Basa Sunda: Sapporo
suomi: Sapporo
svenska: Sapporo
தமிழ்: சப்போரோ
татарча/tatarça: Sapporo
тоҷикӣ: Саппоро
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏌᏉᏬ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Sapporo
Türkçe: Sapporo
Türkmençe: Sapporo
Twi: Sapporo
українська: Саппоро
اردو: ساپورو
vèneto: Sapporo
vepsän kel’: Sapporo
Tiếng Việt: Sapporo
Volapük: Sapporo
文言: 札幌市
Winaray: Sapporo
Wolof: Sapporo
粵語: 札幌市
中文: 札幌市