Santo Niño de Cebú

Holy Child of Cebu
Santo Niño sa Sugbo, Santo Niño de Cebú
Original Image of the Santo Niño de Cebu.jpg
Original image of Señor Santo Niño de Cebú
LocationCebu, Philippines
Date21 April 1521
WitnessFerdinand Magellan
Antonio Pigafetta
Rajah Humabon
TypeWooden statue
Holy See approvalPope Innocent XIII
Pope Paul VI
Pope John Paul II
ShrineBasilica Minore del Santo Niño
AttributesCrown, sceptre, globus cruciger, dark skin, maroon mantle

The Santo Niño de Cebú (Cebuano: Balaang Bata sa Sugbo, Filipino: Batang Banal ng Cebu, Spanish: Santo Niño de Cebú, Central Bicolano: Santo Nino kan Cebu) is a Roman Catholic title and religious image of the Child Jesus[1] widely venerated as miraculous by Filipino Catholics.[2][3] It is one of the oldest Christian relics in the Philippines,[4] originally given in 1521 as a gift by explorer Ferdinand Magellan to Rajah Humabon and his wife when he landed on the island.[5]

The dark wood statue measures approximately twelve inches tall, and carved in the Flemish style. It depicts the Child Jesus, with a serene countenance, in the attitude and dress of a Spanish monarch.[5][6] The statue bears imperial regalia including a gold crown, globus cruciger, and various sceptres, wears fine vestments, and possesses jewellery mostly offered by devotees over several centuries.

Pope Paul VI granted a Canonical Coronation of the statue on 28 April 1965 and later raised its shrine to the status of Minor Basilica on 2 May 1965 via his Papal bull Cubanula Religionis to mark the 400th anniversary of its arrival in the islands.[7][8] [9]

The image is replicated in various parts of the country with different titles and is one of the most beloved and recognizable Filipino cultural icons. The annual dancing feast of Sinulog is held every January on the third Sunday in its honor.[5][10] Today, the original image is permanently encased behind bulletproof glass inside its chapel within the Minor Basilica del Santo Niño.[11]

History

The Santo Niño de Cebú image was originally produced by Flemish artisans, according to a hagiography, based on a vision of Teresa of Avila a mystic of the 16th century.[12]

In early 1521, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, in the service of Charles V of Spain, was on his voyage to find a westward route to spice islands. In April 7, 1521, he landed in Limasawa, Southern Leyte, and met local ruler named Raja Kulambu, who introduced him to the ruler of Cebu Island named Rajah Humabon (some records refer to him as Sultan Humabon[13]) and his chief consort, Hara Humamay. On April 14, 1521, Magellan presented them with three gifts: a cross, an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Santo Niño as a part of their baptism, and a strategic alliance for territorial conquest. As the host ruler adopted the Catholic faith, he took the Christian name of Carlos (after Charles V), while Humamay was christened Juana (after Joanna of Castile, Charles' mother).[14][15] According to Pigafetta – Magellan's companion and memoir writer, along with the ruler, about 500 males there, along with the Sultana and 40 women were also converted by Father Valderrama. At the ceremony, for example, the Raja Kulambu of Limawasa also converted and was renamed as Don Juan, while his Muslim captain was renamed Don Cristobal.[13]

A few days after the baptism, Magellan undertook a war expedition on the behalf of the newly named Carlos,[16] attacked Mactan Island, burning down hamlets who resisted.[13] The residents led by Lapu Lapu defended Magellan's attack with force, and Magellan died on 27 April 1521 in the Battle of Mactan, about three weeks after he had arrived in Philippines.[17] After Magellan's death, his Spanish colleagues left.[18]

The next Spanish expedition arrived on April 27, 1565, again to gain a foothold for a colony to trade spices, and this was led by Miguel López de Legazpi. He attempted a peaceful colonization, but these efforts were rejected. He opened fire on Cebu and burnt the coastal town down destroying 1500 homes and possibly killing 500 people.[19] In the ruins of this destruction, the Spanish mariner Juan Camus found the image of the Santo Niño in a pine box. According to the local legend, the survival of the statue was seen as a sign of miracle by the colonizers, and ever since it has been believed to have miraculous powers.[20]

The image of the Santo Niño is the oldest surviving Catholic relic in the Philippines, along with the Magellan cross.[21] A church to house Santo Niño was built on the spot where the image was found by Juan Camus. The church was originally made out of bamboo and mangrove palm and claims to be the oldest parish in the Philippines. It was reconstructed later, and Pope Paul VI elevated it to the status of Minor Basilica on its 400th anniversary (Spanish: Basílica Menor del Santo Niño).[7]