Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg
Санкт-Петербург
Clockwise from top left: Peter and Paul Fortress on Zayachy Island, Smolny Cathedral, Bronze Horseman on Senate Square, the Winter Palace, Trinity Cathedral, and the Moyka river with the General Staff Building.
Saint Petersburg in Russia (special marker).svg
Coordinates: 59°56′15″N 30°18′31″E / 59°56′15″N 30°18′31″E / 59.93750; 30.30861[3]
Government
 • BodyLegislative Assembly
 • GovernorAlexander Beglov (UR, acting)[4]
Area
 • Total1,439 km2 (556 sq mi)
Area rank82nd
Population
 • Estimate 
(2018)[6]
5,351,935
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[7])
ISO 3166 codeRU-SPE
License plates78, 98, 178, 198
OKTMO ID40000000
Official languagesRussian[8]
Websitehttp://gov.spb.ru

Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] (About this soundlisten)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012,[9] part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city).

It was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703 and served as a capital of Russian Tsardom and subsequent Russian Empire in 1713-1918 (being replaced by Moscow for a short period of time in 1728-1730). After the October Revolution, Bolsheviks moved their government to Moscow.[10]

In modern times, Saint Petersburg is considered the Northern Capital and serves as a home to some federal government bodies such as the Constitutional Court of Russia and Heraldic Council of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also a seat for National Library of Russia and a planned location for the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, so it's also referred to as Russia's Culture Capital.[11] Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world.[12]

Many foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg.

References
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Sources

  • Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. St. Petersburg. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. ISBN 0-7112-2492-7.
  • Bater, James H. St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change. Montreal: McGuill-Queen's University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-7735-0266-1.
  • Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2-213-59601-8.
  • Brumfield, William Craft. The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. ISBN 0-520-06929-3.
  • Buckler, Julie. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-691-11349-1.
  • Clark, Katerina, Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • Cross, Anthony (ed.). St. Petersburg, 1703–1825. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 1-4039-1570-9.
  • "San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by Giuseppe D'Amato in Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46. ISBN Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian.
  • George, Arthur L. & Elena George. St. Petersburg: Russia's Window to the Future, The First Three Centuries. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58979-017-0.
  • Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4.
  • Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg. Helsinki: SKS Finnish literature Society, 2003. ISBN 951-746-491-6.
  • Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10300-7.
  • Duncan Fallowell, One Hot Summer in St Petersburg (London, Jonathan Cape,1995)
  • Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg. New York: Knopf, 1995. ISBN 0-679-76202-7.
  • Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg.[ISBN missing]
  • Lincoln, W. Bruce. Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia. New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-08323-4.
  • Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization in a Russian City. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. ISBN 0-312-17561-2.
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  • Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. St. Petersburg: Architecture of the Tsars. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4.
  • Volkov, Solomon. St. Petersburg: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874052-1.
  • St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4
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Name

A proponent of westernising Russia, Peter the Great, who established the city, originally named it Sankt-Pieter-Burch (Сан(к)т-Питер-Бурхъ) in Dutch manner and later its spelling was standardised as Sankt-Peterburg (Санкт-Петербу́ргъ;[a] the Russian name lacks the letter s between Peter and burg)[13] under German influence. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd (Russian: Петрогра́д[a], IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]),[14] meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German words Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned by citywide referendum. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents often refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter (Russian: Пи́тер, IPA: [ˈpʲitʲɪr]).

The city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to the West and the Window to Europe. The northernmost metropolis in the world, St. Petersburg is often called the Venice of the North or Russian Venice due to its many water corridors, as the city is built on swamp and water. Furthermore, St. Petersburg has strongly European-inspired architecture and culture, which is combined with the city's Russian heritage.[15][16][17] Another nickname of St. Petersburg is The City of White Nights because of a natural phenomenon which arises due to the closeness to the polar region and ensures that in summer the nights of the city do not get completely dark for a month.[18][19] Just as Venice is associated with romance, in St. Petersburg the White Nights have a high value for couples in love.[20]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Бытырбыху
Afrikaans: Sint Petersburg
Alemannisch: Sankt Petersburg
العربية: سانت بطرسبرغ
aragonés: Sant Petersburgo
asturianu: San Petersburgu
Avañe'ẽ: San Petersburgo
Aymar aru: Santu Pitirwurhu
azərbaycanca: Sankt-Peterburq
bamanankan: Saint Petersburg
Bân-lâm-gú: Sankt-Peterburg
башҡортса: Санкт-Петербург
беларуская: Санкт-Пецярбург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Санкт-Пецярбург
Bislama: San-Peterburg
български: Санкт Петербург
bosanski: Sankt Peterburg
brezhoneg: Sant-Petersbourg
čeština: Petrohrad
Chi-Chewa: Saint Petersburg
chiTumbuka: Saint Petersburg
Cymraeg: St Petersburg
dolnoserbski: Sankt Petersburg
eesti: Peterburi
español: San Petersburgo
Esperanto: Sankt-Peterburgo
estremeñu: San Petersburgu
Fiji Hindi: Saint Petersburg
føroyskt: St. Pætursborg
Gàidhlig: Sankt Peterburg
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sankt-Peterburg
Արեւմտահայերէն: Սենթ Փեթերսպուրկ
hornjoserbsce: Pětrohród
hrvatski: Sankt-Peterburg
Bahasa Indonesia: Sankt-Peterburg
interlingua: Sancte Petroburgo
italiano: San Pietroburgo
kalaallisut: Sankt Petersborg
къарачай-малкъар: Санкт-Петербург
kernowek: Sen Pederburg
Kiswahili: Sankt Peterburg
Kreyòl ayisyen: Saint-Pétersbourg
кырык мары: Санкт-Петербург
latgaļu: Pīterpiļs
Latina: Petropolis
latviešu: Sanktpēterburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Sankt Péitersbuerg
Limburgs: Sint-Petersburg
Livvinkarjala: Piiteri
la .lojban.: sankt. peterburg
lumbaart: San Pederburgh
македонски: Санкт Петербург
مازِرونی: سن پترزبورگ
Bahasa Melayu: Saint Petersburg
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sankt-Peterburg
Mirandés: San Petersburgo
Dorerin Naoero: St. Petersburg
Nederlands: Sint-Petersburg
Nedersaksies: Sint-Petersborg
Napulitano: San Pietroburgo
Norfuk / Pitkern: Saint Piiterburg
norsk nynorsk: St. Petersburg
олык марий: Санкт-Петербург
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sankt-Peterburg
Перем Коми: Петракар
Piemontèis: San Peroborgh
Plattdüütsch: Sankt Petersborg
polski: Petersburg
português: São Petersburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Sankt Peterburg
qırımtatarca: Sankt Peterburg
Runa Simi: Sankt Peterburg
русиньскый: Санкт-Петербурґ
sicilianu: San Pietruburgu
Simple English: Saint Petersburg
slovenčina: Petrohrad
slovenščina: Sankt Peterburg
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Санктъ Пєтєрбоургъ
ślůnski: Pejtersburg
Soomaaliga: Saint Petersburg
српски / srpski: Санкт Петербург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sankt Peterburg
Taqbaylit: Saint-Petersburg
tarandíne: San Pitreburghe
татарча/tatarça: Петербург
Türkçe: Sankt-Peterburg
Türkmençe: Sankt-Peterburg
українська: Санкт-Петербург
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Sankt-Pétérburg
vepsän kel’: Piter
Tiếng Việt: Sankt-Peterburg
Volapük: Sankt-Peterburg
Võro: Peterburk
文言: 聖彼得堡
West-Vlams: Sint-Petersburg
吴语: 圣彼得堡
ייִדיש: פעטערבורג
粵語: 聖彼得堡
žemaitėška: Sankt Peterborgs
中文: 圣彼得堡