Russian language

Russian
russkiy yazyk
русский язык [1]
Pronunciation [ˈruskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk]
Native to Russian Federation
Native speakers
150 million (2010) [2]
260 million ( L1 plus L2 speakers) (2012) [3]
Early form
Cyrillic ( Russian alphabet)
Russian Braille
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Russian Language Institute [30] at the Russian Academy of Sciences
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ru
ISO 639-2 rus
ISO 639-3 rus
Glottolog russ1263 [31]
Linguasphere 53-AAA-ea < 53-AAA-e
(varieties: 53-AAA-eaa to 53-AAA-eat)
Russian language status and proficiency in the World.svg
States where Russian is an official language (dark blue) or a de facto working language (teal)

Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine and Latvia, and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states and former members of the Eastern Bloc. [32] [33]

Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond.

It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is also the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. [34] The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English[ citation needed].

Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Stress, which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically [35] though an optional acute accent ( знак ударения, znak udareniya) may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words, for example замо́к (zamók, meaning a lock) and за́мок (zámok, meaning a castle), or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names.

Classification

Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family. It is a lineal[ citation needed] descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus'. From the point of view of the spoken language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn, [36] the other three languages in the East Slavic group. In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarus, these languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, although Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian. [37] In the 19th century, the language was often called " Great Russian" to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called "White Russian" and Ukrainian, then called "Little Russian".

The vocabulary (mainly abstract and literary words), principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and partly russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church. However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language.

Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Latin, Polish, Dutch, German, French, Italian and English, [38] and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic, [39] [40] Persian, [41] [42] Arabic, as well as Hebrew. [43]

According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency. [44] It is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in American world policy.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Урысыбзэ
адыгабзэ: Урысыбзэ
Afrikaans: Russies
Alemannisch: Russische Sprache
አማርኛ: መስኮብኛ
Ænglisc: Russisc sprǣc
العربية: لغة روسية
aragonés: Idioma ruso
arpetan: Russo
অসমীয়া: ৰুছ ভাষা
asturianu: Rusu
Avañe'ẽ: Rrusiañe'ẽ
Aymar aru: Rusi aru
azərbaycanca: Rus dili
تۆرکجه: روس دیلی
বাংলা: রুশ ভাষা
Bân-lâm-gú: Lō͘-se-a-gí
башҡортса: Урыҫ теле
беларуская: Руская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Расейская мова
भोजपुरी: रूसी भाषा
Bikol Central: Ruso
Bislama: Toktok Rusia
български: Руски език
bosanski: Ruski jezik
brezhoneg: Rusianeg
буряад: Ород хэлэн
català: Rus
Чӑвашла: Вырăс чĕлхи
Cebuano: Rinuso
čeština: Ruština
Cymraeg: Rwseg
ދިވެހިބަސް: ރޫސީ
dolnoserbski: Rusojska rěc
eesti: Vene keel
Ελληνικά: Ρωσική γλώσσα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Róss
эрзянь: Рузонь кель
español: Idioma ruso
Esperanto: Rusa lingvo
estremeñu: Lengua russa
euskara: Errusiera
فارسی: زبان روسی
Fiji Hindi: Russi bhasa
føroyskt: Russiskt mál
français: Russe
Frysk: Russysk
Fulfulde: Riisinkoore
furlan: Lenghe russe
Gaeilge: An Rúisis
Gaelg: Rooshish
Gagauz: Rus dili
Gàidhlig: Ruisis
galego: Lingua rusa
贛語: 俄語
گیلکی: رۊسي زوؤن
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngò-lò-sṳ̂-ngî
хальмг: Орсин келн
한국어: 러시아어
Հայերեն: Ռուսերեն
हिन्दी: रूसी भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Rušćina
hrvatski: Ruski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Rusia
interlingua: Lingua russe
isiZulu: IsiRashiya
íslenska: Rússneska
italiano: Lingua russa
עברית: רוסית
Basa Jawa: Basa Ruslan
къарачай-малкъар: Орус тил
ქართული: რუსული ენა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: روٗسک زَبانَ
kaszëbsczi: Rusczi jãzëk
қазақша: Орыс тілі
kernowek: Russek
Kinyarwanda: Kirusiya
Kiswahili: Kirusi
коми: Роч кыв
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang ris
Кыргызча: Орус тили
кырык мары: Руш йӹлмӹ
Ladino: Lingua russa
лакку: Оьрус маз
лезги: Урус чIал
لۊری شومالی: زون روسی
latviešu: Krievu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Russesch
lietuvių: Rusų kalba
Ligure: Lengua russa
Limburgs: Russisch
Livvinkarjala: Ven'an kieli
la .lojban.: rukybau
lumbaart: Lengua rüssa
magyar: Orosz nyelv
македонски: Руски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny rosiana
മലയാളം: റഷ്യൻ ഭാഷ
მარგალური: რუსული ნინა
مصرى: روسى
مازِرونی: روسی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Rusia
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Rusia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngò̤-lò̤-sṳ̆-ngṳ̄
мокшень: Рузонь кяль
молдовеняскэ: Лимба русэ
монгол: Орос хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရုရှားဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Rusiatlahtōlli
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Ratsiya
Nederlands: Russisch
Nedersaksies: Russisch
नेपाली: रूसी भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: रूसी भाषा
日本語: ロシア語
Napulitano: Russo
нохчийн: Оьрсийн мотт
Nordfriisk: Rüsk
Norfuk / Pitkern: Rushan
norsk: Russisk
norsk nynorsk: Russisk
Nouormand: Russe
occitan: Rus
олык марий: Руш йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rus tili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੂਸੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ
Pangasinan: Salitan Rúso
پنجابی: روسی
Papiamentu: Rusiano
پښتو: روسي ژبه
Перем Коми: Роч кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសារុស្ស៊ី
Picard: Russe
Piemontèis: Lenga russa
Tok Pisin: Tok Rasia
Plattdüütsch: Russische Spraak
português: Língua russa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Orıs tili
qırımtatarca: Rus tili
reo tahiti: Reo Rūtia
română: Limba rusă
rumantsch: Lingua russa
Runa Simi: Rusu simi
русиньскый: Російскый язык
русский: Русский язык
саха тыла: Нуучча тыла
davvisámegiella: Ruoššagiella
Gagana Samoa: Fa'arusia
संस्कृतम्: रूसी भाषा
shqip: Gjuha ruse
sicilianu: Lingua russa
Simple English: Russian language
slovenčina: Ruština
slovenščina: Ruščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Роусьскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Rusko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Ruush
Sranantongo: Rusitongo
српски / srpski: Руски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ruski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Rusia
svenska: Ryska
Tagalog: Wikang Ruso
tarandíne: Lènga russe
татарча/tatarça: Рус теле
తెలుగు: రష్యన్ భాష
tetun: Lia-rusu
тоҷикӣ: Забони русӣ
Türkçe: Rusça
Türkmençe: Rus dili
тыва дыл: Орус дыл
удмурт: Ӟуч кыл
українська: Російська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: رۇس تىلى
vèneto: Łéngua rusa
vepsän kel’: Venän kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Nga
Volapük: Rusänapük
Võro: Vinne kiil
文言: 俄語
Winaray: Rinuso
吴语: 俄语
ייִדיש: רוסיש
粵語: 俄文
Zazaki: Ruski
žemaitėška: Rosu kalba
中文: 俄语