It was established under the rules of the
International Convention against Doping in Sport approved at the
UNESCO General Assembly on 19 October 2005, and ratified by the Russian Federation on 26 December 2006.
 As the Russian NADO, the organization operates the anti-doping programs for Russian
Olympic and Paralympic sport.
The organization's WADA accreditation, which under normal circumstances would have been valid until 2017,
 is currently suspended due to the issues discussed below.
The agency website claims they are an organization independent from the government, committed to fight against doping in sport and doping use prevention: "The main objective of RUSADA`s activities is to protect athletes` health and their fundamental right to participate in fair, doping- free sport."
The English translation of their slogan is: “For health and fairness in sport!”
ARAF doping allegations
Following allegations made by German broadcaster
ARD in 2014, WADA commissioned a report into doping and associated corruption in Russian athletics. The report, published in November 2015, was highly critical of RUSADA and the
All-Russia Athletic Federation (ARAF), as well as singling out several individuals for doping offences. It concluded that RUSADA was under improper influence from the
Russian Ministry of Sport. They further alleged that the agency and its employees athletes gave advance notice of tests to athletes and "routinely" took bribes to cover up doping.
On 18 November 2015, WADA suspended laboratory of RUSADA – Moscow Anti-Doping Laboratory, however the organization was not dissolved and tests are to be done by other independent labs.
In February 2016, two high-ranking directors of the organisation — Vyacheslav Sinyev and Nikita Kamayev — died.
 According to
Sunday Times, Kamayev approached the news agency shortly before his death planning to publish a book on "the true story of sport pharmacology and doping in Russia since 1987".
2016 McLaren Report
On 18 July 2016,
Richard McLaren, a WADA-appointed investigator, published a 97-page report covering significant state-sponsored doping in Russia.
 It concluded that it was shown "beyond a reasonable doubt" that the RUSADA, the
Ministry of Sport, the
Federal Security Service (FSB) and the Centre of Sports Preparation of the National Teams of Russia had "operated for the protection of doped Russian athletes" within a "state-directed failsafe system" using "the disappearing positive [test] methodology."
 According to the McLaren report, the Disappearing Positive Methodology operated from "at least late 2011 to August 2015."
:35 It was used on 643 positive samples, a number that the authors consider "only a minimum" due to limited access to Russian records.
In response to these findings, WADA announced that RUSADA should be regarded as non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code and recommended that Russian be banned from competing at the
2016 Summer Olympics.