Russia ( : Russian Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: ), or the [rɐˈsʲijə] Russian Federation (Russian:  Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: ), is a [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] transcontinental in country and Eastern Europe . North Asia At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi),  Russia is, by a considerable margin, the  by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, largest country in the world   and the  , with about 146.79 million people as of 2019 , including ninth most populous . Crimea About 77% of the population live in the  of the country. Russia's capital, western, European part , is one of the Moscow and the second largest city in Europe; other major largest cities in the world include cities , Saint Petersburg , Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg . Extending across the entirety of Nizhny Novgorod and much of Northern Asia , Russia spans Eastern Europe and incorporates a wide range of eleven time zones and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia environments with shares land borders , Norway , Finland , Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania (both with Poland ), Kaliningrad Oblast , Belarus , Ukraine , Georgia , Azerbaijan , Kazakhstan , China and Mongolia . It shares North Korea with maritime borders by the Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk state of U.S. across the Alaska . However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Bering Strait and Abkhazia , both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia. South Ossetia
emerged as a recognizable group in East Slavs between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Europe Founded and ruled by a  warrior elite and their descendants, the Varangian state of medieval arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Rus from the Orthodox Christianity , Byzantine Empire beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined  for the next millennium. Russian culture Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the  and became tributaries of the nomadic Mongol invasion in the 13th century. Golden Horde The  gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and Grand Duchy of Moscow to become the exploration , which was the third Russian Empire in history, stretching from largest empire on the west to Poland on the east. Alaska  
, the Russian Revolution became the largest and leading constituent of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , the world's first constitutionally Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . socialist state The Soviet Union played  in the a decisive role victory in Allied , World War II  and emerged as a recognized  and rival to the superpower during the United States . The Soviet era saw some of the Cold War of the 20th century, including the world's most significant technological achievements and the launching of the first human-made satellite . By the end of 1990, the first humans in space had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Soviet Union   Following the  in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, dissolution of the Soviet Union , Ukraine , Belarus , Kazakhstan , Uzbekistan , Armenia , Azerbaijan , Georgia , Kyrgyzstan , Moldova , Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Turkmenistan , Estonia , Latvia ; the Lithuania reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Russian SFSR . Soviet Union 
The political system of Russia is governed as a
federal republic since semi-presidential . Under 1993 's Vladimir Putin , Russia has been criticized by a number of rule since 2000 groups, outside observers and political dissidents for its human rights rule, authoritarian , unfair human rights record and violations , military interventions in sham elections and Syria , Ukraine in the alleged interference and repression of its 2016 American elections . homosexual population   The Russian government's stated purpose for the law is to protect children from being exposed to homosexuality—content presenting homosexuality as being a norm in society.  The intervention in Syria produced significant gains for the Syrian government,  including the  from the Islamic State in March 2016, recapture of Palmyra in December 2016, breaking the retaking the major city of Aleppo and three-year-long siege of Deir ez-Zor in November 2017. securing control over that city His  led to controversial actions in Ukraine following the sanctions in 2014. annexation of Crimea   Russia responded with sanctions against a number of countries, including a total ban on food  from the imports . United States  It is ranked 24 of 29 in the 2018 Nations in Transit Report by the  and ranked 144th in the 2018 Freedom House . Democracy Index The Democracy Index  beyond the numbers. Russia called Freedom House biased and accused the group of serving U.S. interests. has been criticized for lacking transparency and accountability , an MP from the United Russia party, called Freedom House a "Russophobic" organization. Sergei Markov  ranks as the Russia's economy by twelfth largest and nominal GDP by sixth largest in 2018. purchasing power parity Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,  making it one of the leading  and producers of oil globally. natural gas  The country is one of the five  recognized and possesses the nuclear weapons states . largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction Russia is a  as well as a great power and has been characterised as a regional power . It is a potential superpower of the permanent member and an active global partner of United Nations Security Council , ASEAN   as well as a member of the  (SCO), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation , the G20 , the Council of Europe (APEC), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (OSCE), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (IIB) and the International Investment Bank (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the World Trade Organization (CIS), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (EEU), along with Eurasian Economic Union , Armenia , Belarus and Kazakhstan . Kyrgyzstan
Russia is derived from , a medieval state populated mostly by the Rus' . However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as East Slavs by modern historiography. The Kievan Rus' itself comes from the early medieval name Rus , Rus' people merchants and warriors Swedish  who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on  that later became Novgorod .
An old Latin version of the name Rus' was
, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Ruthenia designation of the Byzantine Greek , Ρωσσία Rus' Rossía—spelled Ρωσία ( Rosía pronounced ) in [roˈsia] . Modern Greek
The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is "
" in English Russians and  rossiyane ( : Russian россияне) in Russian. There are two words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians". One is "русские" ( Russian russkiye), which most often means "ethnic ". Another is "россияне" ( Russians rossiyane), which means " , regardless of ethnicity". Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups.
citizens of Russia
Chavacano de Zamboanga:
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni:
Lingua Franca Nova:
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ:
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: