Russia

  • russian federation

    • Российская Федерация (russian)
    • rossiyskaya federatsiya
    flag of russia
    flag
    coat of arms of russia
    coat of arms
    anthem: 
    "Государственный гимн
    Российской Федерации"

    (tr.) "gosudarstvenny gimn
    rossiyskoy federatsii"

    "state anthem of the russian federation"
    location of russia. crimea, whose annexation by russia from ukraine is not recognized internationally, shown in light green.[1]
    location of russia. crimea, whose annexation by russia from ukraine is not recognized internationally, shown in light green.[1]
    capital
    and largest city
    moscow
    55°45′n 37°37′e / 55°45′n 37°37′e / 55.750; 37.617
    official language
    and national language
    russian
    recognised national languagessee languages of russia
    ethnic groups
    (2010)[2]
    • 81.0% russian
    • 3.7% tatar
    • 1.4% ukrainian
    • 1.2% armenian
    • 1.1% bashkir
    • 1.0% chuvash
    • 11.0% others / unspecified
    religion
    see religion in russia
    demonym(s)russian
    governmentfederal dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republic[3]
    • president
    vladimir putin
    • prime minister
    mikhail mishustin
    • speaker of the federation council
    valentina matviyenko
    • speaker of the state duma
    vyacheslav volodin
    • chief justice
    vyacheslav lebedev
    legislaturefederal assembly
    • upper house
    federation council
    • lower house
    state duma
    formation
    • arrival of rurik[4]
    862
    • kievan rus' formed
    882
    • moscow becomes a grand duchy
    1283
    • tsardom proclaimed
    16 january 1547
    • empire proclaimed
    22 october 1721
    • republic proclaimed
    14 september 1917
    • soviet rule established
    7 november 1917
    • soviet union formed
    30 december 1922
    • constitutional reform
    12 june 1990
    • belavezha accords
    8 december 1991[a]
    • accords effective
    26 december 1991[b]
    • current constitution
    12 december 1993
    • union state with belarus formed
    2 april 1996
    area
    • total
    17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[5] (without crimea)[c] (1st)
    • water (%)
    13[7] (including swamps)
    population
    • 2020 estimate
    • decrease 146,745,098
    • (including crimea)[8][9]
    • 144,384,244
    • (excluding crimea)[8]
    (9th)
    • density
    8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (225th)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $4.519 trillion[10] (6th)
    • per capita
    increase $30,819[10] (49th)
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $1.657 trillion[10] (11th)
    • per capita
    increase $11,305[10] (60th)
    gini (2018)negative increase 37.5[11]
    medium · 98th
    hdi (2018)increase 0.824[12]
    very high · 49th
    currencyrussian ruble () (rub)
    time zoneutc+2 to +12
    date formatdd.mm.yyyy
    driving sideright
    calling code+7
    iso 3166 coderu
    internet tld
    • .ru
    • .su
    • .рф

    russia (russian: Росси́я, tr. rossiya, ipa: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the russian federation,[13][d] is a transcontinental country located in eastern europe and northern asia.[14] covering an area of 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi),[15] it is the largest country in the world by area, spanning more than one-eighth of the earth's inhabited land area,[16][17] stretching eleven time zones, and bordering 16 sovereign nations. the territory of russia extends from the baltic sea in the west to the pacific ocean in the east, and from the arctic ocean in the north to the black sea and the caucasus in the south. with 146.7 million inhabitants living in the country's 85 federal subjects,[8] russia is the most populous nation in europe and the ninth-most populous nation in the world. russia's capital and largest city is moscow; other major urban areas include saint petersburg, novosibirsk, yekaterinburg, nizhny novgorod, kazan and chelyabinsk.

    the east slavs emerged as a recognisable group in europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries ad.[18] founded and ruled by a varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of rus arose in the 9th century. in 988 it adopted orthodox christianity from the byzantine empire, beginning the synthesis of byzantine and slavic cultures that defined russian culture for the next millennium.[19] rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states,[20] until it was finally reunified by the grand duchy of moscow in the 15th century. by the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the russian empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from poland on the west to alaska on the east.[21][22] following the russian revolution, the russian soviet federative socialist republic (russian sfsr) became the largest and leading constituent of the union of soviet socialist republics (ussr/soviet union), the world's first constitutionally socialist state.[23] the soviet union played a decisive role in the allied victory in world war ii,[24][25] and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the united states during the cold war. the soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. following the dissolution of the soviet union in 1991, the russian sfsr reconstituted itself as the russian federation and is recognised as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the ussr.[26]

    the political system of russia is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic since 1993.[3] vladimir putin has dominated russia's political system since 2000, serving as either president or prime minister.[27] often characterised as authoritarian, his government has been accused by political activists and human rights groups of human rights abuses, democratic backsliding and corruption. in response, putin has argued that western-style liberalism is obsolete in russia, while maintaining that the country is still a democratic nation.[28][29][30]

    russia's economy ranks as the fifth-largest in europe, the eleventh-largest in the world by nominal gdp and the sixth-largest by ppp.[10] russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,[31] making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.[32][33] the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of nuclear warheads.[34] russia is a major great power, as well as a regional power, and has been characterised as a potential superpower. its military has been ranked as the world's second most powerful, and the most powerful in europe. russia hosts the world's ninth-greatest number of unesco world heritage sites, at 29,[35] and is among the world's most popular tourist destinations.[36] it is a permanent member of the united nations security council and an active global partner of asean,[37][38][39] as well as a member of the shanghai cooperation organisation (sco), the g20, the council of europe, the asia-pacific economic cooperation (apec), the organization for security and co-operation in europe (osce), the international investment bank (iib) and the world trade organization (wto), as well as being the leading member of the commonwealth of independent states (cis), the collective security treaty organization (csto) and a member of the eurasian economic union (eaeu).

  • etymology
  • history
  • politics
  • geography
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Russian Federation

  • Российская Федерация (Russian)
  • Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Anthem: 
"Государственный гимн
Российской Федерации"

(tr.) "Gosudarstvenny gimn
Rossiyskoy Federatsii"

"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Location of Russia. Crimea, whose annexation by Russia from Ukraine is not recognized internationally, shown in light green.[1]
Location of Russia. Crimea, whose annexation by Russia from Ukraine is not recognized internationally, shown in light green.[1]
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750; 37.617
Official language
and national language
Russian
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
(2010)[2]
Religion
See Religion in Russia
Demonym(s)Russian
GovernmentFederal dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republic[3]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
Formation
• Arrival of Rurik[4]
862
• Kievan Rus' formed
882
• Moscow becomes a Grand Duchy
1283
• Tsardom proclaimed
16 January 1547
• Empire proclaimed
22 October 1721
• Republic proclaimed
14 September 1917
7 November 1917
30 December 1922
12 June 1990
8 December 1991[a]
26 December 1991[b]
12 December 1993
• Union State with Belarus formed
2 April 1996
Area
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[5] (without Crimea)[c] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[7] (including swamps)
Population
• 2020 estimate
(9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (225th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.519 trillion[10] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $30,819[10] (49th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.657 trillion[10] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $11,305[10] (60th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.5[11]
medium · 98th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.824[12]
very high · 49th
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation,[13][d] is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.[14] Covering an area of 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi),[15] it is the largest country in the world by area, spanning more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area,[16][17] stretching eleven time zones, and bordering 16 sovereign nations. The territory of Russia extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. With 146.7 million inhabitants living in the country's 85 federal subjects,[8] Russia is the most populous nation in Europe and the ninth-most populous nation in the world. Russia's capital and largest city is Moscow; other major urban areas include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and Chelyabinsk.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.[18] Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.[19] Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states,[20] until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.[21][22] Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/Soviet Union), the world's first constitutionally socialist state.[23] The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II,[24][25] and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognised as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the USSR.[26]

The political system of Russia is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic since 1993.[3] Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000, serving as either president or prime minister.[27] Often characterised as authoritarian, his government has been accused by political activists and human rights groups of human rights abuses, democratic backsliding and corruption. In response, Putin has argued that Western-style liberalism is obsolete in Russia, while maintaining that the country is still a democratic nation.[28][29][30]

Russia's economy ranks as the fifth-largest in Europe, the eleventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP.[10] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,[31] making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.[32][33] The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of nuclear warheads.[34] Russia is a major great power, as well as a regional power, and has been characterised as a potential superpower. Its military has been ranked as the world's second most powerful, and the most powerful in Europe. Russia hosts the world's ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, at 29,[35] and is among the world's most popular tourist destinations.[36] It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN,[37][38][39] as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the International Investment Bank (IIB) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and a member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU).

Other Languages
Acèh: Rusia
Адыгэбзэ: Урысей
адыгабзэ: Урысые
Afrikaans: Rusland
Akan: Rɔhyea
Alemannisch: Russland
አማርኛ: ሩሲያ
Ænglisc: Russland
Аҧсшәа: Урыстәыла
العربية: روسيا
aragonés: Rusia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܪܘܣܝܐ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Ռուսիա
armãneashti: Arusia
arpetan: Russia
অসমীয়া: ৰাছিয়া
asturianu: Rusia
Avañe'ẽ: Rrúsia
Aymar aru: Rusiya
azərbaycanca: Rusiya
تۆرکجه: روسیه
Bali: Rusia
bamanankan: Risila
বাংলা: রাশিয়া
Banjar: Rusia
Bân-lâm-gú: Lō͘-se-a
Basa Banyumasan: Rusia
беларуская: Расія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Расея
भोजपुरी: रूस
Bikol Central: Rusya
Bislama: Rusia
български: Русия
Boarisch: Russland
བོད་ཡིག: ཨུ་རུ་སུ།
bosanski: Rusija
brezhoneg: Rusia
català: Rússia
Cebuano: Rusya
čeština: Rusko
Chamoru: Russia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Rusia
Chi-Chewa: Russia
chiTumbuka: Russia
corsu: Russia
Cymraeg: Rwsia
dansk: Rusland
davvisámegiella: Ruošša
Deitsch: Russland
Deutsch: Russland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ރޫސީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Rusojska
डोटेली: रूस
eesti: Venemaa
Ελληνικά: Ρωσία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Rossia
español: Rusia
Esperanto: Rusio
estremeñu: Russia
euskara: Errusia
eʋegbe: Russia
فارسی: روسیه
Fiji Hindi: Russia
føroyskt: Russland
français: Russie
Frysk: Ruslân
Fulfulde: Roosiya
furlan: Russie
Gaeilge: An Rúis
Gaelg: Yn Roosh
Gagauz: Rusiya
Gàidhlig: An Ruis
galego: Rusia
ГӀалгӀай: Россе Федераци
贛語: 俄羅斯
Gĩkũyũ: Racia
گیلکی: رۊسیه
ગુજરાતી: રશિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍂𐌿𐍃𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌳
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: रूस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngò-lò-sṳ̂
한국어: 러시아
Hausa: Rasha
Hawaiʻi: Rūsia
հայերեն: Ռուսաստան
हिन्दी: रूस
hornjoserbsce: Ruska
hrvatski: Rusija
Ido: Rusia
Ilokano: Rusia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: রাশিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Rusia
interlingua: Russia
Interlingue: Russia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐅᓛᓴ
Iñupiak: Russia
Ирон: Уæрæсе
isiXhosa: IRashiya
isiZulu: IRashiya
íslenska: Rússland
italiano: Russia
עברית: רוסיה
Jawa: Ruslan
Kabɩyɛ: Ruusii
kalaallisut: Ruslandi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ರಷ್ಯಾ
Kapampangan: Rusia
къарачай-малкъар: Россия Федерация
ქართული: რუსეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: روٗس
kaszëbsczi: Ruskô
қазақша: Ресей
kernowek: Russi
Kinyarwanda: Uburusiya
Kirundi: Uburusiya
Kiswahili: Urusi
коми: Рочму
Kongo: Rusia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Risi
kriyòl gwiyannen: Risi
kurdî: Rûsya
Кыргызча: Орусия
кырык мары: Россий
Ladino: Rusia
лакку: Аьрасат
لۊری شومالی: رۊسیٱ
latgaļu: Krīveja
Latina: Russia
latviešu: Krievija
Lëtzebuergesch: Russland
лезги: Урусат
lietuvių: Rusija
Ligure: Rùscia
Limburgs: Róslandj
lingála: Rusí
Lingua Franca Nova: Rusia
Livvinkarjala: Ven'a
la .lojban.: rukygu'e
Luganda: Rwasha
lumbaart: Rüssia
magyar: Oroszország
मैथिली: रूस
македонски: Русија
Malagasy: Rosia
മലയാളം: റഷ്യ
Malti: Russja
Māori: Rūhia
मराठी: रशिया
მარგალური: რუსეთი
مصرى: روسيا
مازِرونی: روسیه
Bahasa Melayu: Rusia
Minangkabau: Rusia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngò̤-lò̤-sṳ̆
Mirandés: Rússia
мокшень: Рузмастор
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရုရှားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Rusia
Dorerin Naoero: Ratsiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Rusi
Nederlands: Rusland
Nedersaksies: Ruslaand
नेपाली: रुस
नेपाल भाषा: रुस
日本語: ロシア
Napulitano: Russia
нохчийн: Росси
Nordfriisk: Ruslun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Rusha
norsk: Russland
norsk nynorsk: Russland
Nouormand: Russie
Novial: Rusia
occitan: Russia
олык марий: Россий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଋଷିଆ
Oromoo: Raashiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rossiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੂਸ
पालि: रूस
Pälzisch: Russland
Pangasinan: Rusia
پنجابی: روس
Papiamentu: Rusia
پښتو: روسیه
Patois: Rosha
Перем Коми: Рочму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រុស្ស៊ី
Picard: Russie
Piemontèis: Russia
Tok Pisin: Rasia
Plattdüütsch: Russland
polski: Rosja
Ποντιακά: Ρουσία
português: Rússia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Rossiya
qırımtatarca: Rusiye
reo tahiti: Rūtia
română: Rusia
romani čhib: Rusiya
rumantsch: Russia
Runa Simi: Rusya
русиньскый: Росія
русский: Россия
саха тыла: Арассыыйа
Sakizaya: Russia
Gagana Samoa: Rusia
संस्कृतम्: रास्या
Sängö: Rusïi
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱨᱟᱥᱤᱭᱟ
sardu: Rùssia
Scots: Roushie
Seeltersk: Ruslound
Sesotho: Rashea
Sesotho sa Leboa: Russia
Setswana: Russia
shqip: Rusia
sicilianu: Russia
සිංහල: රුසියාව
Simple English: Russia
سنڌي: روس
SiSwati: IRashiya
slovenčina: Rusko
slovenščina: Rusija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Рѡсїꙗ
ślůnski: Rusyjo
Soomaaliga: Ruushka
کوردی: ڕووسیا
Sranantongo: Rusland
српски / srpski: Русија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rusija
Sunda: Rusia
suomi: Venäjä
svenska: Ryssland
Tagalog: Rusya
தமிழ்: உருசியா
Taqbaylit: Rusya
tarandíne: Russie
татарча/tatarça: Русия
తెలుగు: రష్యా
tetun: Rúsia
ትግርኛ: ራሻ
тоҷикӣ: Русия
lea faka-Tonga: Lūsia
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏲᏂᎢ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Russia
Tshivenda: Rashia
ತುಳು: ರಷ್ಯಾ
Türkçe: Rusya
Türkmençe: Russiýa
Twi: Rɔhyia
тыва дыл: Россия
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Ruccia
удмурт: Россия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Russia
українська: Росія
اردو: روس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: روسىيە
Vahcuengh: Ngozlozswh
vèneto: Rusia
vepsän kel’: Venäma
Tiếng Việt: Nga
Volapük: Rusän
Võro: Vinnemaa
walon: Rûsseye
文言: 俄羅斯
West-Vlams: Rusland
Winaray: Rusya
Wolof: Riisi
吴语: 俄罗斯
Xitsonga: Rhaxiya
ייִדיש: רוסלאנד
Yorùbá: Rọ́síà
粵語: 俄羅斯
Zazaki: Rusya
Zeêuws: Rusland
žemaitėška: Rosėjė
中文: 俄罗斯