Russian Federation

  • Российская Федерация (Russian)
  • Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
"Государственный гимн
Российской Федерации"

(tr.) "Gosudarstvenny gimn
Rossiyskoy Federatsii"

"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Location of internationally recognized territory of Russia (green) and the disputed Crimean Peninsula (light green)[note 1]
Location of internationally recognized territory of Russia (green)
and the disputed Crimean Peninsula (light green)[note 1]
and largest city
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750; 37.617
Official language
and national language
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
Secular state (De jure)
Russian Orthodoxy (De facto)[a]
GovernmentFederal dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republic[10]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
• Arrival of Rurik[11]
• Kievan Rus' formed
• Moscow becomes a Grand Duchy
• Tsardom proclaimed
16 January 1547
• Empire proclaimed
22 October 1721
• Republic proclaimed
14 September 1917
7 November 1917
30 December 1922
12 June 1990
8 December 1991[b]
26 December 1991[c]
12 December 1993
• Union State with Belarus formed
2 April 1996
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[12] (without Crimea)[note 2] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[14] (including swamps)
• 2019 estimate
(including Crimea)[15] (9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (225th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.349 trillion[16] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $29,642[16] (49th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $1.638 trillion[16] (11th)
• Per capita
Decrease $11,163[16] (60th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 37.7[17]
medium · 98th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.824[18]
very high · 49th
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), officially the Russian Federation[19][d], is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia.[20] At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi),[21] it is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area,[22][23] spanning eleven time zones, and bordering 18 sovereign nations. About 146.79 million people live in the country's 85 federal subjects (including the disputed Crimea and Sevastapol) as of 2019, making Russia the ninth most populous nation in the world.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.[24] Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire,[25] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.[25] Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states,[26] until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.[27][28] Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/Soviet Union), the world's first constitutionally socialist state.[29] The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II,[30][31] and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the USSR.[32]

The political system of Russia is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic[10] since 1993. Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000, serving as either president or prime minister. His government is often characterized as authoritarian, where Russia has experienced democratic backsliding under his leadership. It is ranked 138 out of 180 countries in the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index[33] and 24 of 29 in the 2018 Nations in Transit Report by Freedom House, while being ranked 144th in the 2018 Democracy Index.[34]

Russia's economy ranks as the eleventh largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2019.[35] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,[36] making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.[37][38] The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.[39] Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN,[40][41][42] as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the International Investment Bank (IIB) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.


The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors[43][44] who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus.

An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek.[45]

The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is "Russians" in English[46] and rossiyane (Russian: россияне) in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians". One is "русские" (russkiye), which most often means "ethnic Russians". Another is "россияне" (rossiyane), which means "citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity". Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups.

Other Languages
Acèh: Rusia
Адыгэбзэ: Урысей
адыгабзэ: Урысые
Afrikaans: Rusland
Akan: Rɔhyea
Alemannisch: Russland
አማርኛ: ሩሲያ
Ænglisc: Russland
Аҧсшәа: Урыстәыла
العربية: روسيا
aragonés: Rusia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܪܘܣܝܐ
armãneashti: Arusia
arpetan: Russie
অসমীয়া: ৰাছিয়া
asturianu: Rusia
Avañe'ẽ: Rrúsia
Aymar aru: Rusiya
azərbaycanca: Rusiya
تۆرکجه: روسیه
Bali: Rusia
bamanankan: Risila
বাংলা: রাশিয়া
Banjar: Rusia
Bân-lâm-gú: Lō͘-se-a
Basa Banyumasan: Rusia
беларуская: Расія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Расея
भोजपुरी: रूस
Bikol Central: Rusya
Bislama: Rusia
български: Русия
Boarisch: Russland
བོད་ཡིག: ཨུ་རུ་སུ།
bosanski: Rusija
brezhoneg: Rusia
català: Rússia
Cebuano: Rusya
čeština: Rusko
Chamoru: Russia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Rusia
Chi-Chewa: Russia
chiTumbuka: Russia
corsu: Russia
Cymraeg: Rwsia
dansk: Rusland
davvisámegiella: Ruošša
Deitsch: Russland
Deutsch: Russland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ރޫސީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Rusojska
डोटेली: रूस
eesti: Venemaa
Ελληνικά: Ρωσία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Rossia
español: Rusia
Esperanto: Rusio
estremeñu: Russia
euskara: Errusia
eʋegbe: Russia
فارسی: روسیه
Fiji Hindi: Russia
føroyskt: Russland
français: Russie
Frysk: Ruslân
Fulfulde: Roosiya
furlan: Russie
Gaeilge: An Rúis
Gaelg: Yn Roosh
Gagauz: Rusiya
Gàidhlig: An Ruis
galego: Rusia
ГӀалгӀай: Россе Федераци
贛語: 俄羅斯
Gĩkũyũ: Racia
گیلکی: رۊسیه
ગુજરાતી: રશિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍂𐌿𐍃𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌳
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: रूस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngò-lò-sṳ̂
한국어: 러시아
Hausa: Rasha
Hawaiʻi: Rūsia
հայերեն: Ռուսաստան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Ռուսիա
हिन्दी: रूस
hornjoserbsce: Ruska
hrvatski: Rusija
Ido: Rusia
Ilokano: Rusia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: রাশিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Rusia
interlingua: Russia
Interlingue: Russia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐅᓛᓴ
Iñupiak: Russia
Ирон: Уæрæсе
isiXhosa: IRashiya
isiZulu: IRashiya
íslenska: Rússland
italiano: Russia
עברית: רוסיה
Jawa: Ruslan
Kabɩyɛ: Ruusii
kalaallisut: Ruslandi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ರಷ್ಯಾ
Kapampangan: Rusia
къарачай-малкъар: Россия Федерация
ქართული: რუსეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: روٗس
kaszëbsczi: Ruskô
қазақша: Ресей
kernowek: Russi
Kinyarwanda: Uburusiya
Kirundi: Uburusiya
Kiswahili: Urusi
коми: Рочму
Kongo: Rusia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Risi
kurdî: Rûsya
Кыргызча: Орусия
кырык мары: Россий
Ladino: Rusia
лакку: Аьрасат
لۊری شومالی: رۊسیٱ
latgaļu: Krīveja
Latina: Russia
latviešu: Krievija
Lëtzebuergesch: Russland
лезги: Урусат
lietuvių: Rusija
Ligure: Ruscia
Limburgs: Róslandj
lingála: Rusí
Lingua Franca Nova: Rusia
Livvinkarjala: Ven'a
la .lojban.: rukygu'e
Luganda: Rwasha
lumbaart: Rüssia
magyar: Oroszország
मैथिली: रूस
македонски: Русија
Malagasy: Rosia
മലയാളം: റഷ്യ
Malti: Russja
Māori: Rūhia
मराठी: रशिया
მარგალური: რუსეთი
مصرى: روسيا
مازِرونی: روسیه
Bahasa Melayu: Rusia
Minangkabau: Rusia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngò̤-lò̤-sṳ̆
Mirandés: Rússia
мокшень: Рузмастор
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရုရှားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Rusia
Dorerin Naoero: Ratsiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Rusi
Nederlands: Rusland
Nedersaksies: Ruslaand
नेपाली: रुस
नेपाल भाषा: रुस
日本語: ロシア
Napulitano: Russia
нохчийн: Росси
Nordfriisk: Ruslun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Rusha
norsk: Russland
norsk nynorsk: Russland
Nouormand: Russie
Novial: Rusia
occitan: Russia
олык марий: Россий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଋଷିଆ
Oromoo: Raashiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rossiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੂਸ
पालि: रूस
Pälzisch: Russland
Pangasinan: Rusia
پنجابی: روس
Papiamentu: Rusia
پښتو: روسیه
Patois: Rosha
Перем Коми: Рочму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រុស្ស៊ី
Picard: Russie
Piemontèis: Russia
Tok Pisin: Rasia
Plattdüütsch: Russland
polski: Rosja
Ποντιακά: Ρουσία
português: Rússia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Rossiya
qırımtatarca: Rusiye
reo tahiti: Rūtia
română: Rusia
romani čhib: Rusiya
rumantsch: Russia
Runa Simi: Rusya
русиньскый: Росія
русский: Россия
саха тыла: Арассыыйа
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱨᱟᱥᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Rusia
संस्कृतम्: रास्या
Sängö: Rusïi
sardu: Rùssia
Scots: Roushie
Seeltersk: Ruslound
Sesotho: Rashea
Sesotho sa Leboa: Russia
Setswana: Russia
shqip: Rusia
sicilianu: Russia
සිංහල: රුසියාව
Simple English: Russia
سنڌي: روس
SiSwati: IRashiya
slovenčina: Rusko
slovenščina: Rusija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Рѡсїꙗ
ślůnski: Rusyjo
Soomaaliga: Ruushka
کوردی: ڕووسیا
Sranantongo: Rusland
српски / srpski: Русија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rusija
Sunda: Rusia
suomi: Venäjä
svenska: Ryssland
Tagalog: Rusya
தமிழ்: உருசியா
Taqbaylit: Rusya
tarandíne: Russie
татарча/tatarça: Русия
తెలుగు: రష్యా
tetun: Rúsia
ትግርኛ: ራሻ
тоҷикӣ: Русия
lea faka-Tonga: Lūsia
Tsetsêhestâhese: Russia
Tshivenda: Rashia
ತುಳು: ರಷ್ಯಾ
Türkçe: Rusya
Türkmençe: Russiýa
Twi: Rɔhyia
тыва дыл: Россия
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Ruccia
удмурт: Россия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Russia
українська: Росія
اردو: روس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: روسىيە
Vahcuengh: Ngozlozswh
vèneto: Rusia
vepsän kel’: Venäma
Tiếng Việt: Nga
Volapük: Rusän
Võro: Vinnemaa
walon: Rûsseye
文言: 俄羅斯
West-Vlams: Rusland
Winaray: Rusya
Wolof: Riisi
吴语: 俄罗斯
Xitsonga: Rhaxiya
ייִדיש: רוסלאנד
Yorùbá: Rọ́síà
粵語: 俄羅斯
Zazaki: Rusya
Zeêuws: Rusland
žemaitėška: Rosėjė
中文: 俄罗斯
kriyòl gwiyannen: Risi
Sakizaya: Russia