Russia

"Russian Federation" redirects here. For other uses of "Russia", see Russia (disambiguation).

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Rossijskaja Federacija
Flag of Russia
Coat of arms of Russia
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Russia (green)Russian-administered Crimea (disputed; light green)a
Location of Russia (green)
Russian-administered Crimea ( disputed; light green)a
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750; 37.617
Official languages Russian
Ethnic groups (2010 [1])
Demonym Russian
Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic [2]
•  President
Vladimir Putin
Dmitry Medvedev
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Legislature Federal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
Formation
• Arrival of Rurik [3]
862
882
1283
•  Tsardom
January 16, 1547
•  Empire
October 22, 1721
•  Republic
September 14, 1917
November 6, 1917
December 30, 1922
June 12, 1990
• Russian Federation
December 25, 1991b
Area
• Total
17,075,200 [4] km2 (6,592,800 sq mi) ( 1st)
• Water (%)
13 [5] (including swamps)
Population
• 2016 estimate
144,221,341 [6] (without Crimea) [7] ( 9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) ( 217th)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$3.685 trillion ( 6th)
• Per capita
$25,185 ( 53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$1.133 trillion ( 14th)
• Per capita
$7,742 [8] ( 72nd)
Gini (2013) 40.1 [9]
medium ·  83rd
HDI (2014) Increase 0.798 [10]
high ·  50th
Currency Russian ruble (₽) ( RUB)
Time zone ( UTC+2 to +12)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +7
ISO 3166 code RU
Internet TLD
  1. The Crimean Peninsula is recognized as territory of Ukraine by a majority of UN member nations, but is de facto administered by Russia. [11]
  2. The Belavezha Accords was signed in Brest, Belarus on December 8, creating the Commonwealth of Independent States in which the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR ratified the accords on December 12, denouncing the 1922 treaty. On December 25, Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation and the following the day on December 26, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union ratified the accords, effectively dissolving the Soviet Union.

Russia ( Listen i /ˈrʌʃə/; Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossija; IPA:  [rɐˈsʲijə]; from the Greek: ΡωσίαRus'), also officially known as the Russian Federation [12] ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossijskaja Federacija; IPA:  [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a country in Eurasia. [13] At 17,075,200 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, [14] [15] [16] and the ninth most populous, with over 140 million people at the end of March 2016. [17] [7] The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the eastern, about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other major urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara.

Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.

The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. [18] Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, [19] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. [19] Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. [20] The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. [21] [22]

Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. [23] The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, [24] [25] and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. [26] [27] [28] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, fifteen independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan; as the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union. [29] It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic.

The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. [30] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, [31] making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. [32] [33] The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. [34] Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

Etymology

Main articles: Rus' people and Rus' (name)

The name Russia is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from Rus people, a group of Varangians (possibly Swedish Vikings) [35] [36] who founded the state of Rus (Русь).

An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelt Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced  [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek. [37]

The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is " Russians". [38]