Ruhollah Khomeini

Grand Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini
سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی‎‎
Ruhollah Khomeinii.jpg
1st Supreme Leader of Iran
In office
3 December 1979 – 3 June 1989
President Abolhassan Banisadr
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Ali Khamenei
Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Mahdavi Kani
Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Preceded by office established
Succeeded by Ali Khamenei
Personal details
Born (1902-09-24)24 September 1902 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
Khomeyn, Persia
Died 3 June 1989(1989-06-03) (aged 86)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Spouse(s) Khadijeh Saqafi (m. 1929–1989)
Children Mostafa
Zahra
Sadiqeh
Farideh
Ahmad
Signature
Website www.imam-khomeini.ir
Theological career
Religion Islam
Denomination Twelver Shīʿā [6] [7] [8]
Jurisprudence Ja'fari
Creed Usuli
Notable idea(s) New advance of Guardianship
Notable work(s) Forty Hadith, Kashf al-Asrar, Tahrir al-Wasilah, Islamic Government
Alma mater Qom Seminary
Teachers Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi
Styles of
Ruhollah Khomeini
Reference style Eminent marji' al-taqlid, Ayatullah al-Uzma Imam Khumayni [9]
Spoken style Imam Khomeini [10]
Religious style Ayatullah al-Uzma Ruhollah Khomeini [10]

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini ( Persian: سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی [ruːhoɫˈɫɑːhe χomeiˈniː] ( About this sound  listen); 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, [11] was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader and politician. He was the founder of Iran as an Islamic republic and the leader of its 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of 2500 years of Persian monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Khomeini was born in 1902 in Khomeyn, in what is now Iran's Markazi Province. His father was murdered in 1903 when Khomeini was six months old. He began studying the Quran and the Persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother.

Khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation") in Twelver Shia Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih (an expert in Islamic law) and author of more than 40 books, but he is primarily known for his political activities. He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist (clerical authority)", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists. This principle (though not known to the wider public before the revolution [12] [13]), was appended to the new Iranian constitution [14] after being put to a referendum. [15] According to New York Times, Khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution. [16] Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be democratic is disputed. [17]

He was named Man of the Year in 1979 by American news magazine Time for his international influence, [18] and has been described as the "virtual face of Shia Islam in Western popular culture". [19] In 1982, Khomeini survived one military coup attempt. [20] Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis, [21] his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, [18] [22] and for referring to the United States as the " Great Satan" and Soviet Union as the " Lesser Satan." [23] Khomeini has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of Iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners, war criminals and prisoners of the Iran–Iraq War). [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

He has also been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity", [29] a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars, [19] who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias, [30] and a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy. [31] [32]

Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is officially known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran [33] and by his supporters internationally. [10] He is generally referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others. [34] In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehrān's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his supporters, [35] and he is legally considered "inviolable", with Iranians regularly punished for insulting him. [36] [37]

Early years

Background

Ruhollah Khomeini's birthplace at Khomeyn

Ruhollah Khomeini's ancestors migrated towards the end of the 18th century from their original home in Nishapur, Khorasan Province, in northeastern Iran, for a short stay, to the kingdom of Awadh – a region in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh, India – whose rulers were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian origin. [38] [39] [40] [41] During their rule they extensively invited, and received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, poets, jurists, architects, and painters. [42] The family eventually settled in the small town of Kintoor, just outside Lucknow, the capital of Awadh. [43] [44] [45] [46] Ayatollah Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi, was born in Kintoor. [44] [46] He left Lucknow in 1830, on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Imam Ali in Najaf, Ottoman Iraq (now Iraq) and never returned. [43] [46] According to Moin, this migration was to escape from the spread of British power in India. [47] In 1834 Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi visited Persia, and in 1839 he settled in Khomein. [44] Although he stayed and settled in Iran, he continued to be known as Hindi, indicating his stay in India, and Ruhollah Khomeini even used Hindi as a pen name in some of his ghazals. [43] There are also claims that Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi departed from Kashmir, instead of Lucknow. [40]

Childhood

Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose first name means "spirit of God", was born on 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province. He was raised by his mother, Hajieh Agha Khanum, and his aunt, Sahebeth, following the murder of his father, Seyed Mostafa Hindi, five months after his birth in 1903. [48]

Ruhollah began to study the Qur'an and elementary Persian at the age of six. [49] The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned religion, noheh khani (lamentation recital), and other traditional subjects. [47] Throughout his childhood, he continued his religious education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far, [47] and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh. [50]

Education and lecturing

Khomeini as a student with his friends (second from right)

After World War I arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak. He was placed under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi. [51] In 1920, Khomeini moved to Arak and commenced his studies. [52] The following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred to the Islamic seminary in the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved, [50] and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. [53] Khomeini's studies included Islamic law ( sharia) and jurisprudence ( fiqh), [49] but by that time, Khomeini had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy ( irfan). So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini continued to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini. [54] [55] However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shahabadi, [56] and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadra and Ibn Arabi. [55]

Khomeini studied Greek philosophy and was influenced by both the philosophy of Aristotle, whom he regarded as the founder of logic, [57] and Plato, whose views "in the field of divinity" he regarded as "grave and solid". [58] Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini was mainly influenced by Avicenna and Mulla Sadra. [57]

Khomeini in 1938

Apart from philosophy, Khomeini was interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Beginning in his adolescent years, Khomeini composed mystic, political and social poetry. His poetry works were published in three collections: The Confidant, The Decanter of Love and Turning Point, and Divan. [59] His knowledge of poetry is further attested by the famed modern poet Nader Naderpour (1929–2000), who "had spent many hours exchanging poems with Khomeini in the early 1960", and who says : "For four hours we recited poetry. Every single line I recited from any poet, he recited the next." [60]

Ruhollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Najaf and Qom seminaries for decades before he was known on the political scene. He soon became a leading scholar of Shia Islam. [61] He taught political philosophy, [62] Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students – for example, Morteza Motahhari – later became leading Islamic philosophers and also marja'. As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics. [63] He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophy and mysticism that not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion. [64]

Inaugurating his teaching career at the age of 27 by giving private lessons on irfan and Mulla Sadra to a private circle, around the same time, in 1928, he also released his first publication, Sharh Du'a al-Sahar (Commentary on the Du'a al-Baha), "a detailed commentary, in Arabic, on the prayer recited before dawn during Ramadan by Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq", followed, some years later, by Sirr al-Salat (Secret of the Prayer), where "the symbolic dimensions and inner meaning of every part of the prayer, from the ablution that precedes it to the salam that concludes it, are expounded in a rich, complex, and eloquent language that owes much to the concepts and terminology of Ibn 'Arabi. As Sayyid Fihri, the editor and translator of Sirr al-Salat, has remarked, the work is addressed only to the foremost among the spiritual elite (akhass-i khavass) and establishes its author as one of their number." [65] The second book has been translated by Sayyid Amjad Hussain Shah Naqavi and released by The Mystery of Prayer: The Ascension of the Wayfarers and the Prayer of the Gnostics".

Political aspects

His seminary teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day, and he worked against secularism in the 1940s. His first political book, Kashf al-Asrar (Uncovering of Secrets) [66] [67] published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of Asrar-e hazar salih (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi, [68] as well as a condemnation of innovations such as international time zones, [69] [note 1] and the banning of hijab by Reza Shah. In addition, he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris, the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during the 1920s. Khomeini became a marja' in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Ruhullah Xomeyni
Bân-lâm-gú: Ruhollah Khomeini
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рухала Мусаві Хамэйні
български: Рухолах Хомейни
bosanski: Ruholah Homeini
Hausa: Khomeini
hrvatski: Ruholah Homeini
Bahasa Indonesia: Ruhollah Khomeini
Lëtzebuergesch: Ruhollah Chomeini
Bahasa Melayu: Ruhollah Khomeini
Nederlands: Ruhollah Khomeini
norsk nynorsk: Ruhollah Khomeini
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Humayniy Ruhullo Musoviy
português: Ruhollah Khomeini
Simple English: Ayatollah Khomeini
slovenčina: Chomejní
slovenščina: Ruholah Musavi Homeini
Soomaaliga: Ruhollah Khomeini
српски / srpski: Рухолах Хомеини
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ruholah Homeini
татарча/tatarça: Ruhallah Xomeyni
Tiếng Việt: Ruhollah Khomeini
文言: 霍梅尼
粵語: 高美尼