## Roman numerals |

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The **Roman numerals** originated in ^{[1]}

The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the

- roman numeric system
- history
- special values
- see also
- references
- sources
- further reading

The original pattern for Roman numerals used the symbols I, V, and X (1, 5, and 10) as simple tally marks. Each marker for 1 (I) added a unit value up to 5 (V), and was then added to (V) to make the numbers from 6 to 9:

**I, II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X**.

The numerals for 4 (IIII) and 9 (VIIII) proved problematic (among other things, they are easily confused with III and VIII, especially at a quick glance), and are generally replaced with IV (one less than 5) and IX (one less than 10). This feature of Roman numerals is called

The numbers from 1 to 10 (including subtractive notation for 4 and 9) are expressed in Roman numerals as follows:

**I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X**.^{[2]}

The system being basically decimal, *tens and hundreds follow the same underlying pattern*. This is the key to understanding Roman numerals:

Thus 10 to 100 (counting in tens, with X taking the place of I, L taking the place of V and C taking the place of X):

**X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC, C**.

Note that 40 (XL) and 90 (XC) follow the same subtractive pattern as 4 and 9, avoiding the confusing XXXX.

Similarly, 100 to 1000 (counting in hundreds):

**C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM, M**.

Again - 400 (CD) and 900 (CM) follow the standard subtractive pattern, avoiding CCCC.

In the absence of standard symbols for 5,000 and 10,000 the pattern breaks down at this point - in modern usage M is repeated up to three times. The Romans had several ways to indicate larger numbers, but for practical purposes Roman Numerals for numbers larger than 3,999 are seldom if ever used nowadays, and this suffices.

**M, MM, MMM**.

Many numbers include hundreds, units and tens. The Roman numeral system being basically decimal, each power of ten is added in descending sequence from left to right, as with Arabic numerals. For example:

- 39 = "Thirty nine" (XXX+IX) =
**XXXIX**. - 246 = "Two hundred and forty six" (CC+XL+VI) =
**CCXLVI**. - 421 = "Four hundred and twenty one" (CD+XX+I) =
**CDXXI**.

As each power of ten (or "place") has its own notation there is no need for place keeping zeros, so "missing places" are ignored, as in Latin (and English) speech, thus:

- 160 = "One hundred and sixty" (C+LX) =
**CLX** - 207 = "Two hundred and seven" (CC+VII) =
**CCVII** - 1066 = "A thousand and sixty six" (M+LX+VI) =
**MLXVI**.^{[3]}^{[4]}

Roman numerals for large numbers are nowadays seen mainly in the form of year numbers (other uses are detailed later in this article), as in these examples:

- 1776 (M+DCC+LXX+VI) =
**MDCCLXXVI**(the date written on the book held by theStatue of Liberty ).^{[5]} - 1954 (M+CM+L+IV) =
**MCMLIV**(as in thetrailer for the movie)The Last Time I Saw Paris ^{[6]} - 1990 (M+CM+XC) =
**MCMXC**(used as the title of musical projectEnigma 's debut album, named after the year of its release).MCMXC a.D. - 2014 (MM+X+IV) =
**MMXIV**(the year of the games of the XXII (22nd)Olympic Winter Games (inSochi ) - The current year (2019) is
**MMXIX**.

The "standard" forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than an unchanging and universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval times. There is still no official "binding" standard, which makes the elaborate "rules" used in some sources to distinguish between "correct" and "incorrect" forms highly problematic^{[7]}.

- "Classical" inscriptions (those dating from the Roman period) not infrequently use IIII for "4" instead of IV. Other "non-subtractive" forms, such as VIIII for IX, are also sometimes seen, although they are less common. On the numbered gates to the
colosseum , for instance, IV is systematically avoided in favour of IIII, but other "subtractives" apply, so that gate 44 is labelled XLIIII.^{[8]}Isaac Asimov speculates that the use of "IV", as the initial letters of "IVPITER" (the classical Latin spelling of the name of the Roman godJupiter ) may have been felt to have beenimpious in this context.^{[9]}

Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o'clock but IX for nine o'clock, a practice that goes back to very early clocks such as theWells Cathedral clock of the late 14th century.^{[10]}^{[11]}^{[12]}However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on thePalace of Westminster ,Big Ben , uses a "normal" IV.^{[11]}- XIIX or IIXX are sometimes used for "18" instead of XVIII. The Latin word for "eighteen" is often rendered as the equivalent of "two less than twenty" (
*duodeviginti*) which may be the source of this usage. - The standard forms for 98 and 99 are XCVIII and XCIX, as described in the "decimal pattern" section above, but these numbers are occasionally rendered as IIC and IC
^{[13]}, perhaps originally from the Latin*duodecentum*and*undecentum*(two/one less than a hundred). - Sometimes V and L are not used, with instances such as IIIIII and XXXXXX rather than VI or LX.
^{[14]}^{[15]} - Most non-standard numerals other than those described above - such as VXL for 45, instead of the standard XLV are modern and may be due to error rather than being genuine variant usage. In the early years of the 20th century, different representations of 900 (conventionally CM) appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance, 1910 is shown on
Admiralty Arch , London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, while on the north entrance to theSaint Louis Art Museum , 1903 is inscribed as MDCDIII rather than MCMIII.^{[16]}

Other Languages

Afrikaans: Romeinse syfers

العربية: أرقام رومانية

asturianu: Numberación romana

Avañe'ẽ: Papaha Rómapegua

azərbaycanca: Rum rəqəmləri

تۆرکجه: رومی اعداد

বাংলা: রোমান সংখ্যা

Bân-lâm-gú: Lô-má sò͘-jī

башҡортса: Рим цифрҙары

беларуская: Рымская сістэма злічэння

беларуская (тарашкевіца): Рымскія лічбы

български: Римски цифри

བོད་ཡིག: རོ་མའི་ཨང་ཀི།

bosanski: Rimski brojevi

brezhoneg: Niveradur roman

català: Numeració romana

Чӑвашла: Рим шутлав йĕрки

čeština: Římské číslice

dansk: Romertal

Deutsch: Römische Zahlschrift

eesti: Rooma numbrid

Ελληνικά: Ρωμαϊκοί αριθμοί

emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nùmer romàṅ

español: Numeración romana

Esperanto: Romaj ciferoj

euskara: Erromatar zenbakera

فارسی: عددنویسی رومی

français: Numération romaine

Gaeilge: Uimhir Rómhánach

galego: Numeración romana

한국어: 로마 숫자

հայերեն: Հռոմեական թվեր

हिन्दी: रोमन संख्यांक

hrvatski: Rimski brojevi

Ido: Romana cifri

Bahasa Indonesia: Angka Romawi

interlingua: Numeration roman

íslenska: Rómverskir tölustafir

italiano: Sistema di numerazione romano

עברית: ספרות רומיות

ಕನ್ನಡ: ರೋಮನ್ ಅಂಕಿಗಳು

қазақша: Рим сандары

Kiswahili: Namba za Kiroma

kurdî: Hejmarên romî

Кыргызча: Рим цифралары

Latina: Numeri Romani

latviešu: Romiešu skaitļi

Lëtzebuergesch: Réimesch Zuelen

lietuvių: Romėniški skaičiai

Lingua Franca Nova: Numeros roman

magyar: Római számírás

македонски: Римски бројки

മലയാളം: റോമൻ സംഖ്യാസമ്പ്രദായം

मराठी: रोमन अंक

مصرى: نمر رومانى

Bahasa Melayu: Angka Rumi

Mirandés: Numeraçon romana

Nederlands: Romeinse cijfers

नेपाली: रोमन संख्या

日本語: ローマ数字

Nordfriisk: Röömsk taal

norsk: Romertall

norsk nynorsk: Romartal

Nouormand: Chiffes romaines

occitan: Numeracion romana

oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rim raqamlari

Plattdüütsch: Röömsche Tallen

polski: Rzymski system zapisywania liczb

português: Numeração romana

română: Cifre romane

русский: Римские цифры

Gagana Samoa: Fuainumera o Roma

Scots: Roman numerals

Sesotho sa Leboa: Lebadi la roma

shqip: Numrat romakë

sicilianu: Nùmmura rumani

සිංහල: රෝමානු සංඛ්යා

Simple English: Roman numeral

slovenčina: Rímska číslica

slovenščina: Rimske številke

српски / srpski: Римски бројеви

srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rimski brojevi

suomi: Roomalaiset numerot

svenska: Romerska siffror

தமிழ்: உரோமை எண்ணுருக்கள்

ไทย: ตัวเลขโรมัน

Türkçe: Roma rakamları

українська: Римська система числення

اردو: رومن اعداد

vèneto: Numarasion romana

Tiếng Việt: Số La Mã

吴语: 罗马数字

ייִדיש: רוימישע צאל

粵語: 羅馬數字

Zazaki: Reqemê Romenan

中文: 罗马数字