## Roman numerals |

East Asian |
---|

Alphabetic |

Former |

**Roman numerals** are a ^{[1]}

The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the

One place they are often seen is on

**I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII**

The notations **IV** and **IX** can be read as "one before five" (4) and "one before ten" (9). On most Roman numeral **IIII**.

Other common uses include year numbers on monuments and buildings and copyright dates on the title screens of movies and television programs. **MCM**, signifying "a thousand, and a hundred less than another thousand", means 1900, so 1912 is written **MCMXII**. For this century, **MM** indicates 2000. Thus the current year is **MMXIX**.

- description
- origin of the system
- use in the middle ages and renaissance
- modern use
- special values
- unicode
- see also
- references
- sources
- further reading

There is not, and never has been, an "official", "binding", or universally accepted standard for Roman numerals. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained somewhat inconsistent in medieval times and later.^{[2]} The "rules" of the system as it is now applied have been established only by general usage over the centuries.

Roman numerals are essentially a

The underlying form of this pattern employs the symbols I and V (representing 1 and 5) as simple tally marks, to build the numbers from 1 to 9. Each marker for 1 (I) adds a unit value up to 5 (V), and is then added to (V) to make the numbers from 6 to 9. Finally the unit symbol for the next power completes a "finger count" sequence:

**I, II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X**.

At some early time the Romans started to use the abbreviated forms IV ("one less than 5") and IX ("one less than 10") for IIII and VIIII, a convention that has been widely, although not universally, used ever since.^{[a]} This convention is called "subtractive" notation,^{[3]}as opposed to the purely "additive" notation of IIII and VIIII.^{[4]} Thus the numbers from 1 to 10 are generally written as

**I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X**.^{[5]}

The multiples of 10, from 10 to 100, are written according to the same pattern, with X, L, and C taking the place of I, V, and X

**X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC, C**.

Note that 40 is usually written XL ("10 less than 50") rather than XXXX, and 90 as XC ("10 less than 100") rather than LXXXX.

Similarly, the multiples of 100, 100 to 1000, are written as

**C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM, M**.

where CD is to be read as "100 less than 500" (that is, 400), and CM as "100 less than 1000" (that is, 900).

Since the system has no standard symbols for 5,000 and 10,000, the only multiples of 1000 that can be represented in subtractive notation are 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000:

**M, MM, MMM.**

A number containing several decimal places is represented, as in the Arabic system, by writing its power-of-ten parts — thousands, hundreds, tens and units — in sequence, from left to right, in descending order of value. For example:

- 39 = 30 + 9 = XXX + IX =
**XXXIX**. - 246 = 200 + 40 + 6 = CC + XL + VI =
**CCXLVI**. - 789 = 700 + 80 + 9 = DCC + LXXX + IX =
**DCCLXXXIX**. - 2421 = 2000 + 400 + 20 + 1 = MM + CD + XX +I =
**MMCDXXI**.

Any missing place (represented by a zero in the Arabic equivalent) is omitted, as in Latin (and English) speech:

- 160 = 100 + 60 = C + LX =
**CLX**("one hundred and sixty"). - 207 = 200 + 7 = CC + VII =
**CCVII**("two hundred and seven"). - 1009 = 1,000 + 9 = M + IX =
**MIX**("A thousand and nine") - 1066 = 1,000 + 60 + 6 = M + LX + VI =
**MLXVI**("a thousand and sixty six").^{[6]}^{[7]}

Roman numerals for large numbers are nowadays seen mainly in the form of year numbers, as in these examples:

- 1776 (M+DCC+LXX+VI) =
**MDCCLXXVI**(the date written on the book held by theStatue of Liberty ).^{[8]} - 1954 (M+CM+L+IV) =
**MCMLIV**(as in thetrailer for the movie)The Last Time I Saw Paris ^{[9]} - 2014 (MM+X+IV) =
**MMXIV**(the year of the games of the XXII (22nd)Olympic Winter Games (inSochi ) - The current year (2019) is
**MMXIX**.

The largest number that can be represented in this notation is 3,999 (**MMMCMXCIX**).^{[b]}

While subtractive notation for multiples of 4 (IV, XL, CD) has been prevalent since Roman times, additive notation (IIII, XXXX,^{[10]} and CCCC^{[10]} continued to be used, including in compound numbers like XXIIII,^{[11]} LXXIIII,^{[12]} and CCCCLXXXX.^{[13]} The additive forms for 9, 90, and 900 (VIIII,^{[10]}LXXXX,^{[14]} and DCCCC,^{[15]}) have also been used, although less frequently.

The two conventions could be mixed in the same document or inscription, even in the same numeral. On the numbered gates to the ^{[16]} ^{[17]}

Modern ^{[18]}^{[19]}^{[20]} However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the ^{[19]}

Several monumental inscriptions created in the early 20th century use variant forms for "1900" (usually written MCM). These vary from MDCCCCX - a classical use of additive notation for MCMX (1910), as seen on ^{[c]} on the north entrance to the ^{[21]}

While the subtractive and additive notations seem to have been used interchangibly through history, some other Roman numerals have been occasionally observed that do not fit either system. Some of these variants do not seem to have been used outside specific contexts, and may have been regarded as errors even by contemporaries.

- IIXX was how people associated with the
XXII Roman Legion used to write their number. The practice may have been due to a common way to say "twenty-second" in Latin, namely*duo et vice*(*n*)*sima*(literally "two and twentieth") rather than the "regular"*vice*(*n*)*sima secunda*("twentieth second").^{[22]}.

- Likewise, XIIX was used by officers of the
XVIII Roman Legion to write their number.^{[23]}^{[24]}The notation appears prominently on thecenotaph of their seniorcenturion Marcus Caelius (~45 BC – 9 AD). There does not seem to be a linguistic explanation for this use, although it is one stroke shorter than XVIII.

- On the other hand, "irregular" subtractives like IIIXX for 17
^{[25]}and IIXX for 18^{[26]}were occasionally used in more modern times. A possible explanation is that the word for 18 in Latin was*duodeviginti*, literally "two from twenty". Similarly, the word for 19 was*undeviginti*("one from twenty"). These ways of saying 18 and 19 have been attributed to influence from the Etruscans, who would say "three from twenty" for 17, "two from twenty" for 18, and "one from twenty" for 19.^{[27]}Apparently, at least one ancientstonecutter mistakenly thought that the IIXX of "22nd Legion" stood for 18, and "corrected" it to XVIII.^{[22]}However, the explanation does not seem to apply to IIIXX, since the Latin word for 17 was*septendecim*("seven ten"), and for "17th" was*septimus decimus*("seventh tenth").

- Likewise, 98 and 99 are occasionally rendered as IIC and IC instead of XCVIII and XCIX,
^{[28]}perhaps reflecting the Latin words*duodecentum*and*undecentum*("two/one from a hundred") for those numbers.

- Sometimes 5 and 50 have been written IIIII and XXXXX instead of V and L; and there are instances such as IIIIII and XXXXXX rather than VI or LX.
^{[29]}^{[30]}

- There is at least one example (see illustration) of a year number written as two Roman numerals corresponding to the spoken English "sixteen thirteen", or XVI-XIII for 1613. This, and other non-standard numerals other than those described above — such as VXL for 45, instead of the standard XLV — may be due to error rather than being genuine variant usage.
- Not all combinations of symbols used in Roman numerals are intended to be taken numerically. For example "
XXX " and "XL " have other connotations besides their values as Roman numerals, while "IXL " more often than not means "I excel", and is in any case not an unambiguous Roman numeral.

Other Languages

Afrikaans: Romeinse syfers

العربية: أرقام رومانية

asturianu: Numberación romana

Avañe'ẽ: Papaha Rómapegua

azərbaycanca: Rum rəqəmləri

تۆرکجه: رومی اعداد

বাংলা: রোমান সংখ্যা

Bân-lâm-gú: Lô-má sò͘-jī

башҡортса: Рим цифрҙары

беларуская: Рымская сістэма злічэння

беларуская (тарашкевіца): Рымскія лічбы

български: Римски цифри

བོད་ཡིག: རོ་མའི་ཨང་ཀི།

bosanski: Rimski brojevi

brezhoneg: Niveradur roman

català: Numeració romana

Чӑвашла: Рим шутлав йĕрки

čeština: Římské číslice

dansk: Romertal

Deutsch: Römische Zahlschrift

eesti: Rooma numbrid

Ελληνικά: Ρωμαϊκοί αριθμοί

emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nùmer romàṅ

español: Numeración romana

Esperanto: Romaj ciferoj

euskara: Erromatar zenbakera

فارسی: عددنویسی رومی

français: Numération romaine

Gaeilge: Uimhir Rómhánach

galego: Numeración romana

한국어: 로마 숫자

հայերեն: Հռոմեական թվեր

Արեւմտահայերէն: Հռովմէական թուանշաններ

हिन्दी: रोमन संख्यांक

hrvatski: Rimski brojevi

Ido: Romana cifri

Bahasa Indonesia: Angka Romawi

interlingua: Numeration roman

íslenska: Rómverskir tölustafir

italiano: Sistema di numerazione romano

עברית: ספרות רומיות

ಕನ್ನಡ: ರೋಮನ್ ಅಂಕಿಗಳು

қазақша: Рим сандары

Kiswahili: Namba za Kiroma

kurdî: Hejmarên romî

Кыргызча: Рим цифралары

Latina: Numeri Romani

latviešu: Romiešu skaitļi

Lëtzebuergesch: Réimesch Zuelen

lietuvių: Romėniški skaičiai

Lingua Franca Nova: Numeros roman

magyar: Római számírás

македонски: Римски бројки

മലയാളം: റോമൻ സംഖ്യാസമ്പ്രദായം

मराठी: रोमन अंक

مصرى: نمر رومانى

Bahasa Melayu: Angka Rumi

Mirandés: Numeraçon romana

Nederlands: Romeinse cijfers

नेपाली: रोमन संख्या

日本語: ローマ数字

Nordfriisk: Röömsk taal

norsk: Romertall

norsk nynorsk: Romartal

Nouormand: Chiffes romaines

occitan: Numeracion romana

oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rim raqamlari

Plattdüütsch: Röömsche Tallen

polski: Rzymski system zapisywania liczb

português: Numeração romana

română: Cifre romane

русский: Римские цифры

Gagana Samoa: Fuainumera o Roma

Scots: Roman numerals

Sesotho sa Leboa: Lebadi la roma

shqip: Numrat romakë

sicilianu: Nùmmura rumani

සිංහල: රෝමානු සංඛ්යා

Simple English: Roman numerals

slovenčina: Rímska číslica

slovenščina: Rimske številke

српски / srpski: Римски бројеви

srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rimski brojevi

suomi: Roomalaiset numerot

svenska: Romerska siffror

தமிழ்: உரோமை எண்ணுருக்கள்

ไทย: ตัวเลขโรมัน

Türkçe: Roma rakamları

українська: Римська система числення

اردو: رومن اعداد

vèneto: Numarasion romana

Tiếng Việt: Số La Mã

吴语: 罗马数字

ייִדיש: רוימישע צאל

粵語: 羅馬數字

Zazaki: Reqemê Romenan

中文: 罗马数字