Rojava

Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria

  • Rêveberiya Xweser a Bakur û Rojhilatê Sûriyeyê  (Kurdish)
    الإدارة الذاتية لشمال وشرق سوريا  (Arabic)
    ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܝܳܬ݂ܰܝܬܳܐ ܠܓܰܪܒܝܳܐ ܘܡܰܕܢܚܳܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܰܐ  (Classical Syriac)
    Kuzey ve Doğu Suriye Özerk Yönetimi  (Turkish)
Areas under the region's administration
Areas under the region's administration
StatusDe facto autonomous region of Syria
CapitalAyn Issa[1]
36°23′7″N 38°51′34″E / 36°23′7″N 38°51′34″E / 36.38528; 38.85944
Largest cityRaqqa
Official languagesSee languages
GovernmentLibertarian socialist federated semi-direct democracy
Îlham Ehmed[2]
Mansur Selum[3]
• Co-Chairs
Amina Omar
Riad Darar[4]
LegislatureSyrian Democratic Council
Autonomous region
• Cantons declare autonomy
January 2014
• Cantons declare federation
17 March 2016
• New administration declared
6 September 2018
Area
• Total
50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi)[5]
Population
• 2018 estimate
≈2,000,000[6]
CurrencySyrian pound (SYP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
Driving sideright
  1. ^ Several symbols have been used to represent the entity in official settings. See Facebook.

The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (NES), sometimes referred to as Rojava[by whom?Discuss], is considered a de facto autonomous region in northeastern Syria, only by some Kurdish sources like Hawar News Agency.[7]

The region gained its de facto autonomy in 2012 in the context of the ongoing Rojava conflict and the wider Syrian Civil War, in which its official military force, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), has taken part.[citation needed]

While entertaining some foreign relations, the region is not officially recognized as autonomous by the government of Syria or any international state or organization.[8][9] Northeastern Syria is polyethnic and home to sizeable ethnic Kurdish, Arab and Assyrian populations, with smaller communities of ethnic Turkmen, Armenians and Circassians.[10]

The supporters of the region argue that it is an officially secular polity[11][12] with direct democratic ambitions based on a libertarian socialist ideology promoting decentralization, gender equality,[13][failed verification][original research?] environmental sustainability and pluralistic tolerance for religious, cultural and political diversity, and that these values are mirrored in its constitution, society, and politics, claiming it to be a model for a federalized Syria as a whole, rather than outright independence.[14][15][16][17][18][19] Some of the criticism against the region has included claims of authoritarianism, Kurdification[20][21], ban on critical journalists, the promotion of an anti-capitalist ideology, and influence from the Kurdistan Workers' Party (commonly known as PKK).[22][23]

Polity names and translations

The Tricolor flag of TEV-DEM, adopted circa 2012, commonly used by Kurds in Syria.

Parts of Northern Syria are known as Western Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê‎) or Rojava (ɑː/ VAH; Kurdish: [roʒɑˈvɑ] "the West"),[24][better source needed] one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan,[25] and the territory around Jazira province of northeastern Syria is considered by Syriac-Assyrians as Gozarto (Classical Syriac: ܓܙܪܬܐ‎, romanized: Gozarto), part of the historical Assyrian homeland.[26]

On 17 March 2016, its de facto administration self-declared the establishment of a federal system of government as the Democratic Federation of Rojava – Northern Syria (Kurdish: Federaliya Demokratîk a Rojava – Bakurê Sûriyê‎; Arabic: الفدرالية الديمقراطية لروج آفا – شمال سوريا‎, romanizedal-Fidirāliyya al-Dīmuqrāṭiyya li-Rūj ʾĀvā – Šamāl Suriyā; Classical Syriac: ܦܕܪܐܠܝܘܬ݂ܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܬܐ ܠܓܙܪܬܐ ܒܓܪܒܝܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ‎, romanized: Federaloyotho Demoqraṭoyto l'Gozarto b'Garbyo d'Suriya; sometimes abbreviated as NSR).[27][28][29][30]

The updated December 2016 constitution of the polity uses the name Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS) (Kurdish: Federaliya Demokratîk a Bakûrê Sûriyê‎; Arabic: الفدرالية الديمقراطية لشمال سوريا‎, romanizedal-Fidirāliyya al-Dīmuqrāṭiyya li-Šamāl Suriyā; Classical Syriac: ܦܕܪܐܠܝܘܬ݂ܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܬܐ ܕܓܪܒܝ ܣܘܪܝܐ‎, romanized: Federaloyotho Demoqraṭoyto d'Garbay Suriya).[31][32][33][34]

Since 6 September 2018, the Syrian Democratic Council has adopted a new name for the region, naming it the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (NES) (Kurdish: Rêveberiya Xweser a Bakur û Rojhilatê Sûriyeyê‎; Arabic: الإدارة الذاتية لشمال وشرق سوريا‎; Classical Syriac: ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܝܳܬ݂ܰܝܬܳܐ ܠܓܰܪܒܝܳܐ ܘܡܰܕܢܚܳܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܰܐ‎, romanized: Mdabronuṯo Yoṯayto l-Garbyo w-Madnḥyo d-Suriya; Turkish: Kuzey ve Doğu Suriye Özerk Yönetimi) also sometimes translated into English as the "Self-Administration of North and East Syria", encompassing the Euphrates, Afrin, and Jazira regions as well as the local civil councils in the regions of Raqqa, Manbij, Tabqa, and Deir ez-Zor.[35][1][36]

The region's administration is sometimes also referred to as the "Democratic Autonomous Administration" (DAA).[37]

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Rojava
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сырыйскі Курдыстан
bosanski: Rožava
brezhoneg: Kurdistan Siria
Cebuano: Rojava
čeština: Rojava
Deutsch: Rojava
Esperanto: Roĵavo
فارسی: روژاوا
français: Rojava
Gaeilge: Rojava
گیلکی: رؤژاوا
한국어: 로자바
हिन्दी: रोजावा
Bahasa Indonesia: Rojava
íslenska: Rojava
italiano: Rojava
ქართული: როჟავა
latviešu: Rožava
മലയാളം: റൊജാവ
مازِرونی: روژاوا
Nederlands: Rojava
日本語: ロジャヴァ
norsk nynorsk: Syrisk Kurdistan
polski: Rożawa
português: Curdistão sírio
română: Rojava
Scots: Rojava
Simple English: Rojava
српски / srpski: Западни Курдистан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sirijski Kurdistan
svenska: Rojava
Tiếng Việt: Rojava
文言: 羅賈瓦
中文: 羅賈瓦