Rock music

Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as " rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. [1] [2] It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily on the African-American genres of blues and rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass and drums and one or more singers. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

By the late 1960s "classic rock" [1] period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, raga rock, and jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, which was influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene. New genres that emerged included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and eventually alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/ post-punk and synth-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s (decade).

Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.

Characteristics

A good definition of rock, in fact, is that it's popular music that to a certain degree doesn't care if it's popular.

Bill Wyman, Vulture.com [3]
A photograph of four members of The Red Hot Chili Peppers performing on a stage
Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band (from left to right: bassist, lead vocalist, drummer, and guitarist).

The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularization of rock and roll, [4] and was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists. [5] The sound of an electric guitar in rock music is typically supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, [6] and percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. [7] This trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers. [8] The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the basic blues band instrumentation (prominent lead guitar, second chordal instrument, bass, and drums). [5] A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group and typically consists of between three–the power trio used in rock, metal and punk rock–and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist, drummer and often that of keyboard player or other instrumentalist. [9]

Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. [10] Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. [10] Rock songs, since the late 1950s [11] and particularly from the mid-1960s onwards, often used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. [12] Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock. [13] Because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." [14]

A simple 4/4 drum pattern common in rock music About this sound  Play 

Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes in addition to romantic love: including sex, rebellion against " The Establishment", social concerns and life styles. [10] These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm and blues. [15] Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, and asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more generally, noise." [16] The predominance of white, male and often middle class musicians in rock music has often been noted [17] and rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young, white and largely male audience. [18] As a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. [19] Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". [20]

Since the term rock began to be used in preference to rock and roll from the late-1960s, it has often been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from which it is often distanced by an emphasis on musicianship, live performance and a focus on serious and progressive themes as part of an ideology of authenticity that is frequently combined with an awareness of the genre's history and development. [21] According to Simon Frith "rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the romantic concept of art as artistic expression, original and sincere". [21] In the new millennium the term rock has sometimes been used as a blanket term including forms such as pop music, reggae music, soul music, and even hip hop, with which it has been influenced but often contrasted through much of its history. [22]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Rockmusiek
Alemannisch: Rockmusik
العربية: موسيقى الروك
aragonés: Musica rock
asturianu: Rock
azərbaycanca: Rok
বাংলা: রক সঙ্গীত
башҡортса: Рок
беларуская: Рок-музыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рок-музыка
български: Рок музика
Boarisch: Rockmusi
bosanski: Rock muzika
brezhoneg: Sonerezh rock
català: Música rock
čeština: Rock
dansk: Rock
Deutsch: Rockmusik
Ελληνικά: Ροκ μουσική
español: Rock
Esperanto: Rok-muziko
estremeñu: Rock
euskara: Rock
français: Rock
Frysk: Rockmuzyk
Gaeilge: Rac-cheol
Gàidhlig: Ròc
galego: Música rock
贛語: 搖滾樂
한국어: 록 음악
Հայերեն: Ռոք
hrvatski: Rock
Ido: Rock
Bahasa Indonesia: Musik rock
íslenska: Rokk
italiano: Rock
ქართული: როკ-მუსიკა
қазақша: Рок-музыка
Kiswahili: Muziki wa rock
Kurdî: Muzîka rock
Latina: Musica rock
latviešu: Rokmūzika
Lëtzebuergesch: Rockmusek
lietuvių: Rokas
lumbaart: Rock
magyar: Rock
македонски: Рок-музика
മലയാളം: റോക്ക്
मराठी: रॉक संगीत
მარგალური: როკ-მუსიკა
Bahasa Melayu: Muzik rock
Mirandés: Rock
Nāhuatl: Rock
Nederlands: Rock
नेपाली: रक संगीत
नेपाल भाषा: रक संगीत
norsk bokmål: Rock
norsk nynorsk: Rock
occitan: Musica Rock
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rok
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੌਕ ਸੰਗੀਤ
پنجابی: روک موسیقی
Patois: Rak myuuzik
Plattdüütsch: Rock (Musik)
polski: Rock
português: Rock
română: Muzică rock
Runa Simi: Rock
русиньскый: Рок-музика
русский: Рок-музыка
саха тыла: Рок музыка
Seeltersk: Rockmusik
shqip: Rock
sicilianu: Mùsica rock
Simple English: Rock music
slovenčina: Rock
slovenščina: Rock
ślůnski: Rok (muzyka)
کوردیی ناوەندی: مۆسیقای ڕۆک
српски / srpski: Рок музика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rock muzika
suomi: Rock
svenska: Rockmusik
Tagalog: Musikang rock
தமிழ்: ராக் இசை
татарча/tatarça: Рок-музыка
ไทย: ร็อก
Türkçe: Rock müzik
українська: Рок-музика
vèneto: Rock
Tiếng Việt: Rock
walon: Rock
Winaray: Rock
ייִדיש: ראק מוזיק
粵語: 搖滾樂
žemaitėška: Ruoks
中文: 摇滚乐