Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s[1][2] from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, jazz, boogie woogie, and rhythm and blues,[3] along with country music.[4] While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s[5] and in country records of the 1930s,[4] the genre did not acquire its name until 1954.[6][7]

According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U.S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter also continued to be known as rock and roll."[8] For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition.

In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was typically the lead instrument, but these instruments were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s.[9] The beat is essentially a dance rhythm[10] with an accentuated backbeat, which is almost always provided by a snare drum.[11] Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a double bass or string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit.[9]

Beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teens enjoyed the music.[12] It went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply "rock music" or "rock".

Terminology

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio in the origins of rock and roll

The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage. The American Heritage Dictionary[13] and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary[14] both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and later developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music".[8]

The phrase "rocking and rolling" originally described the movement of a ship on the ocean,[15] but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals[16] and as a sexual analogy. Various gospel, blues and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more frequently – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience.[16]

In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe.[17] By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue.[18] In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it.[19]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Rock 'n' Roll
العربية: روك أند رول
asturianu: Rock and roll
azərbaycanca: Rok-n-roll
Bân-lâm-gú: Iô-kún-ga̍k
беларуская: Рок-н-рол
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рок-н-рол
български: Рокендрол
Boarisch: Rock 'n' Roll
bosanski: Rokenrol
brezhoneg: Rock 'n' roll
català: Rock and roll
čeština: Rock and roll
Ελληνικά: Ροκ εντ ρολ
español: Rock and roll
Esperanto: Rokenrolo
euskara: Rock and roll
Fiji Hindi: Rock and roll
français: Rock 'n' roll
한국어: 로큰롤
հայերեն: Ռոքնռոլ
Bahasa Indonesia: Rock and roll
íslenska: Rokk og ról
italiano: Rock and roll
ქართული: როკ-ენ-როლი
қазақша: Рок-н-ролл
Kiswahili: Rock and roll
latviešu: Rokenrols
lietuvių: Rokenrolas
Limburgs: Rock-'n-roll
la .lojban.: zginroknro
lumbaart: Rock 'n Roll
македонски: Рокенрол
Bahasa Melayu: Rock and roll
монгол: Рок-н-ролл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Rock and roll
Nederlands: Rock-'n-roll
नेपाल भाषा: रक एन्ड रोल
norsk nynorsk: Rock and roll
occitan: Rock'n'roll
олык марий: Рок-н-ролл
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rock and roll
português: Rock and roll
română: Rock and roll
русский: Рок-н-ролл
sicilianu: Rock and roll
Simple English: Rock and roll
slovenčina: Rokenrol
српски / srpski: Рокенрол
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rock and roll
svenska: Rock'n'roll
Tagalog: Rock and roll
Türkçe: Rock and roll
українська: Рок-н-рол
Tiếng Việt: Rock and roll
Winaray: Rock and roll
ייִדיש: ראק און ראל
Yorùbá: Rock and roll
中文: 摇滚