Robot

ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005
Articulated welding robots used in a factory are a type of industrial robot
The quadrupedal military robot Cheetah, an evolution of BigDog (pictured), was clocked as the world's fastest legged robot in 2012, beating the record set by an MIT bipedal robot in 1989.[1]

A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.[2] Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look.

Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO) and TOSY's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot (TOPIO) to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patient assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, UAV drones such as General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, and even microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Autonomous things are expected to proliferate in the coming decade,[3] with home robotics and the autonomous car as some of the main drivers.[4]

The branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots,[5] as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing is robotics. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. These robots have also created a newer branch of robotics: soft robotics.

From the time of ancient civilization there have been many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and even automata resembling animals and humans, designed primarily as entertainment. As mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control.

The term comes from a Czech word, robota, meaning "forced labor";[6] the word 'robot' was first used to denote a fictional humanoid in a 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossumovi Univerzální Roboti - Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek but it was Karel's brother Josef Čapek who was the word's true inventor.[7][8][9] Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948, as well as Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools in the late 1940s by John T. Parsons and Frank L. Stulen. The first commercial, digital and programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey.[10]

Robots have replaced humans[11] in performing repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do because of size limitations, or which take place in extreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea. There are concerns about the increasing use of robots and their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising technological unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions.[12] The use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future.

Summary

KITT (a fictional robot) is mentally anthropomorphic.
iCub is physically anthropomorphic.

The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots.[13] There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, and the public, that robots tend to possess some or all of the following abilities and functions: accept electronic programming, process data or physical perceptions electronically, operate autonomously to some degree, move around, operate physical parts of itself or physical processes, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.[14][15] Closely related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic Biology, which studies entities whose nature is more comparable to beings than to machines.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Roboter
አማርኛ: ሮቦት
Ænglisc: Searuþræl
العربية: روبوت
aragonés: Robot
asturianu: Robó
azərbaycanca: Robot
বাংলা: রোবট
Bân-lâm-gú: Robot
башҡортса: Робот
беларуская: Робат
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Робат
български: Робот
Boarisch: Robota
bosanski: Robot
brezhoneg: Robot
català: Robot
čeština: Robot
Cymraeg: Robot
dansk: Robot
Deutsch: Roboter
eesti: Robot
Ελληνικά: Ρομπότ
español: Robot
Esperanto: Roboto
euskara: Robot
فارسی: ربات
Fiji Hindi: Robot
français: Robot
galego: Robot
贛語: 機械人
Gĩkũyũ: Robot
한국어: 로봇
հայերեն: Ռոբոտ
हिन्दी: रोबोट
hrvatski: Robot
Ido: Roboto
Ilokano: Robot
Bahasa Indonesia: Robot
interlingua: Robot
íslenska: Vélmenni
italiano: Robot
עברית: רובוט
Basa Jawa: Robot
ქართული: რობოტი
қазақша: Робот
Kiswahili: Roboti
kurdî: Robot
Кыргызча: Робот
ລາວ: ໂຣບົດ
Latina: Robotum
latviešu: Robots
lietuvių: Robotas
lumbaart: Robot
magyar: Robot
македонски: Робот
മലയാളം: റോബോട്ട്
მარგალური: რობოტი
Bahasa Melayu: Robot
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စက်ရုပ်
Nederlands: Robot
नेपाली: रोबोट
日本語: ロボット
norsk: Robot
norsk nynorsk: Robot
Nouormand: Robot
occitan: Robòt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Robot
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੋਬੋਟ
پنجابی: روبوٹ
Patois: Ruobot
Picard: Robot
polski: Robot
português: Robô
română: Robot
Romani: Yandron
русский: Робот
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱨᱚᱵᱚᱴ
Scots: Robot
shqip: Roboti
sicilianu: Robot
Simple English: Robot
slovenčina: Robot
slovenščina: Robot
Soomaaliga: Robot
کوردی: ڕۆبۆت
српски / srpski: Робот
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Robot
Basa Sunda: Robot
suomi: Robotti
svenska: Robot
татарча/tatarça: Робот
తెలుగు: మరమనిషి
Türkçe: Robot
українська: Робот
اردو: روبوٹ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: روبوت
Tiếng Việt: Robot
Võro: Robot
文言: 機器人
Winaray: Robot
吴语: 机器人
ייִדיש: ראבאט
粵語: 機械人
Zazaki: Robot
中文: 机器人