Robert Mugabe

  • robert mugabe
    photograph of robert mugabe
    mugabe in 1979
    2nd president of zimbabwe
    in office
    31 december 1987 (1987-12-31) – 21 november 2017 (2017-11-21)
    prime ministermorgan tsvangirai (2009–2013)
    first vice-president
    • simon muzenda
    • joice mujuru
    • emmerson mnangagwa
    second vice-president
    • joshua nkomo
    • joseph msika
    • john nkomo
    • phelekezela mphoko
    preceded bycanaan banana
    succeeded byemmerson mnangagwa
    1st prime minister of zimbabwe
    in office
    18 april 1980 (1980-04-18) – 31 december 1987 (1987-12-31)
    presidentcanaan banana
    deputysimon muzenda
    preceded byabel muzorewa (zimbabwe rhodesia)
    succeeded bymorgan tsvangirai (2009)
    leader and first secretary of zanu–pf
    zimbabwe african national union (1975–1987)
    in office
    18 march 1975 (1975-03-18) – 19 november 2017 (2017-11-19)
    chairman
    • joseph msika
    • john nkomo
    • oppah muchinguri
    • simon khaya-moyo
    second secretary
    • joseph msika
    • john nkomo
    • joice mujuru
    • emmerson mnangagwa
    preceded byherbert chitepo
    succeeded byemmerson mnangagwa
    13th chairperson of the african union
    in office
    30 january 2015 (2015-01-30) – 30 january 2016 (2016-01-30)
    leadernkosazana dlamini-zuma
    preceded bymohamed ould abdel aziz
    succeeded byidriss déby
    10th secretary general of the
    non-aligned movement
    in office
    6 september 1986 (1986-09-06) – 7 september 1989 (1989-09-07)
    deputyjanez drnovšek
    preceded byzail singh
    succeeded byjanez drnovšek
    personal details
    born
    robert gabriel mugabe

    (1924-02-21)21 february 1924
    kutama, southern rhodesia
    died6 september 2019(2019-09-06) (aged 95)
    gleneagles hospital, singapore
    political party
    • african national congress youth league (1949–1952)
    • national democratic party (1960–1961)
    • zimbabwe african people's union (1961–1963)
    • zimbabwe african national union (1963–1987)
    • zimbabwe african national union-patriotic front (1987–2017)
    spouse(s)
    • sally hayfron
      (m. 1961; her death 1992)
    • grace marufu
      (m. 1996; his death 2019)
    children4, including bona
    alma mater
    • university of fort hare
    • university of south africa
    • university of london international programmes
    signature

    robert gabriel mugabe (i/;[1] shona: [muɡaɓe]; 21 february 1924 – 6 september 2019) was a zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as prime minister of zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as president from 1987 to 2017. he served as leader of the zimbabwe african national union (zanu) from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the zanu – patriotic front (zanu–pf), from 1980 to 2017. ideologically an african nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a marxist–leninist, and as a socialist after the 1990s. his policies have been described as mugabeism.

    mugabe was born to a poor shona family in kutama, southern rhodesia. educated at kutama college and the university of fort hare, he worked as a school teacher in southern rhodesia, northern rhodesia, and ghana. angered by white minority rule of his homeland within the british empire, mugabe embraced marxism and joined african nationalists calling for an independent state controlled by the black majority. after making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. on release, he fled to mozambique, established his leadership of zanu, and oversaw its role in the rhodesian bush war, fighting ian smith's predominately white government. he reluctantly participated in peace talks in the united kingdom that resulted in the lancaster house agreement, putting an end to the war. in the 1980 general election, mugabe led zanu-pf to victory. as prime minister of the newly renamed zimbabwe, mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream, conservative economic policies.

    mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with joshua nkomo's zimbabwe african people's union (zapu) also deteriorated. in the gukurahundi of 1982–1987, mugabe's fifth brigade crushed zapu-linked opposition in matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly ndebele civilians. internationally he sent troops into the second congo war and chaired the non-aligned movement (1986–89), the organisation of african unity (1997–98), and the african union (2015–16). pursuing decolonisation, mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, economic decline, and western sanctions. opposition to mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural shona voter base. in 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former vice president emmerson mnangagwa. he died two years later in singapore.

    having dominated zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, mugabe was a controversial figure. he was praised as a revolutionary hero of the african liberation struggle who helped free zimbabwe from british colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule. critics accused mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruption in zimbabwe, anti-white racism, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.

  • early life
  • revolutionary activity
  • prime minister of zimbabwe: 1980–1987
  • president of zimbabwe
  • post-presidency
  • ideology
  • personal life
  • public image and legacy
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading

Robert Mugabe
Photograph of Robert Mugabe
Mugabe in 1979
2nd President of Zimbabwe
In office
31 December 1987 (1987-12-31) – 21 November 2017 (2017-11-21)
Prime MinisterMorgan Tsvangirai (2009–2013)
First vice-president
Second vice-president
Preceded byCanaan Banana
Succeeded byEmmerson Mnangagwa
1st Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
In office
18 April 1980 (1980-04-18) – 31 December 1987 (1987-12-31)
PresidentCanaan Banana
DeputySimon Muzenda
Preceded byAbel Muzorewa (Zimbabwe Rhodesia)
Succeeded byMorgan Tsvangirai (2009)
Leader and First Secretary of ZANU–PF
Zimbabwe African National Union (1975–1987)
In office
18 March 1975 (1975-03-18) – 19 November 2017 (2017-11-19)
Chairman
Second Secretary
Preceded byHerbert Chitepo
Succeeded byEmmerson Mnangagwa
13th Chairperson of the African Union
In office
30 January 2015 (2015-01-30) – 30 January 2016 (2016-01-30)
LeaderNkosazana Dlamini-Zuma
Preceded byMohamed Ould Abdel Aziz
Succeeded byIdriss Déby
10th Secretary General of the
Non-Aligned Movement
In office
6 September 1986 (1986-09-06) – 7 September 1989 (1989-09-07)
DeputyJanez Drnovšek
Preceded byZail Singh
Succeeded byJanez Drnovšek
Personal details
Born
Robert Gabriel Mugabe

(1924-02-21)21 February 1924
Kutama, Southern Rhodesia
Died6 September 2019(2019-09-06) (aged 95)
Gleneagles Hospital, Singapore
Political party
Spouse(s)
Children4, including Bona
Alma mater
Signature

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (i/;[1] Shona: [muɡaɓe]; 21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017. He served as Leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist, and as a socialist after the 1990s. His policies have been described as Mugabeism.

Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Educated at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered by white minority rule of his homeland within the British Empire, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalists calling for an independent state controlled by the black majority. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw its role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominately white government. He reluctantly participated in peace talks in the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement, putting an end to the war. In the 1980 general election, Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory. As Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe, Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream, conservative economic policies.

Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also deteriorated. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1987, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians. Internationally he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16). Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, economic decline, and Western sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa. He died two years later in Singapore.

Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe was a controversial figure. He was praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule. Critics accused Mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruption in Zimbabwe, anti-white racism, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Robert Mugabe
العربية: روبرت موغابي
Արեւմտահայերէն: Ռոպերթ Մուկապէ
asturianu: Robert Mugabe
azərbaycanca: Robert Muqabe
Bân-lâm-gú: Robert Mugabe
беларуская: Роберт Мугабэ
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Робэрт Мугабэ
Bikol Central: Robert Mugabe
български: Робърт Мугабе
Boarisch: Robert Mugabe
bosanski: Robert Mugabe
brezhoneg: Robert Mugabe
català: Robert Mugabe
čeština: Robert Mugabe
Cymraeg: Robert Mugabe
Deutsch: Robert Mugabe
español: Robert Mugabe
Esperanto: Robert Mugabe
euskara: Robert Mugabe
føroyskt: Robert Mugabe
français: Robert Mugabe
Gaeilge: Robert Mugabe
hornjoserbsce: Robert Mugabe
hrvatski: Robert Mugabe
Bahasa Indonesia: Robert Mugabe
Interlingue: Robert Mugabe
isiZulu: Robert Mugabe
íslenska: Robert Mugabe
italiano: Robert Mugabe
Kapampangan: Robert Mugabe
Kiswahili: Robert Mugabe
latviešu: Roberts Mugabe
Lëtzebuergesch: Robert Mugabe
lietuvių: Robert Mugabe
Limburgs: Robert Mugabe
македонски: Роберт Мугабе
Malagasy: Robert Mugabe
მარგალური: რობერტ მუგაბე
مازِرونی: رابرت موگابه
Bahasa Melayu: Robert Mugabe
Nederlands: Robert Mugabe
norsk nynorsk: Robert Mugabe
occitan: Robert Mugabe
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Robert Mugabe
Plattdüütsch: Robert Mugabe
português: Robert Mugabe
Ripoarisch: Robert Mugabe
română: Robert Mugabe
Runa Simi: Robert Mugabe
Sakizaya: Robert Mugabe
Simple English: Robert Mugabe
slovenčina: Robert Mugabe
slovenščina: Robert Mugabe
Soomaaliga: Robert Mugabe
српски / srpski: Роберт Мугабе
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Robert Mugabe
svenska: Robert Mugabe
Tagalog: Robert Mugabe
Taqbaylit: Robert Mugabe
Türkçe: Robert Mugabe
українська: Роберт Мугабе
Tiếng Việt: Robert Mugabe
Winaray: Robert Mugabe
Yorùbá: Robert Mugabe