Richard Strauss

Richard Strauss
Max Liebermann Bildnis Richard Strauss.jpg
Portrait of Strauss by Max Liebermann (1918)
Born
Richard Georg Strauss

(1864-06-11)11 June 1864
Died8 September 1949(1949-09-08) (aged 85)
Resting placeStrauss Villa, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
NationalityGerman
OccupationComposer
Spouse(s)
Pauline de Ahna (m. 1894)
ChildrenFranz Strauss
Parents
Signature
Dr. Richard Strauss signature 01.jpg

Richard Georg Strauss (German pronunciation: [ˈʁɪçaʁt ˈʃtʁaʊs];[1][2] 11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; his tone poems, including Don Juan, Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, Ein Heldenleben, Symphonia Domestica, and An Alpine Symphony; and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen and his Oboe Concerto. Strauss was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire.

Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler, represents the late flowering of German Romanticism after Richard Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style.

Early life and family

Strauss aged 22
Strauss with his wife and son, 1910
Strauss villa at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Built 1906. Architect: Emanuel Seidl.

Strauss was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich, the son of Josephine (née Pschorr) and Franz Strauss, who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich.[3] In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father. He wrote his first composition at the age of six, and continued to write music almost until his death.

During his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra (now the Bavarian State Orchestra), where he received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor. In 1872, he started receiving violin instruction at the Royal School of Music from Benno Walter, his father's cousin. In 1874, Strauss heard his first Wagner operas, Lohengrin and Tannhäuser. The influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, and it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. In later life, Strauss said that he deeply regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works.[4] Nevertheless, Strauss's father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Strauss's abiding love for the horn.

In early 1882, in Vienna, he gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor, playing a piano reduction of the orchestral part himself, with his teacher Benno Walter as soloist. The same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music. He left a year later to go to Berlin, where he studied briefly before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow, who had been enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade (Op. 7) for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Strauss learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Bülow was very fond of the young man, and decided that Strauss should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra when Bülow resigned in 1885. Strauss's compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings. His Horn Concerto No. 1, is representative of this period and is a staple of the modern horn repertoire.

Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on 10 September 1894. She was famous for being irascible, garrulous, eccentric and outspoken, but to all appearances the marriage was essentially happy, and she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, and all his operas contain important soprano roles.

The Strausses had one son, Franz, in 1897. Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in 1924.[5] Franz and Alice had two sons, Richard and Christian.

In 1906, Strauss purchased a block of land at Garmisch-Partenkirchen and had a villa (de) built there with the down payments from the publisher Adolph Fürstner[6] for his opera Salome,[7][8] residing there until his death.

Other Languages
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asturianu: Richard Strauss
azərbaycanca: Rixard Ştraus
Bân-lâm-gú: Richard Strauss
беларуская: Рыхард Штраус
български: Рихард Щраус
Boarisch: Richard Strauss
bosanski: Richard Strauss
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español: Richard Strauss
Esperanto: Richard Strauss
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Bahasa Indonesia: Richard Strauss
íslenska: Richard Strauss
italiano: Richard Strauss
Kiswahili: Richard Strauss
Кыргызча: Рихард Штраус
latviešu: Rihards Štrauss
Lëtzebuergesch: Richard Strauss
lietuvių: Richard Strauss
македонски: Рихард Штраус
Malagasy: Richard Strauss
Nederlands: Richard Strauss
norsk nynorsk: Richard Strauss
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shtraus Rixard
português: Richard Strauss
română: Richard Strauss
Simple English: Richard Strauss
slovenčina: Richard Strauss
slovenščina: Richard Strauss
српски / srpski: Рихард Штраус
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Richard Strauss
Türkçe: Richard Strauss
українська: Ріхард Штраус
Tiếng Việt: Richard Strauss