Residential segregation in the United States
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Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level". While it has traditionally been associated with racial segregation, it generally refers to any kind of sorting based on some criteria populations (e.g. race, ethnicity, income).
While overt segregation is illegal in the United States, housing patterns show significant and persistent segregation for certain races and income groups. The history of American social and public policies, like
Race based residential segregation in American cities dates from the rapid urbanization which occurred in the last years of the 19th and the first years of the 20th century. Prior to that time, the African-Americans who lived in cities lived in scattered locations. Development of segregated residential neighborhoods was associated with massive influxes of European immigrants and African-Americans. These groups had limited funds and job opportunities and ended up clustered in neighborhoods with poor housing. These neighborhoods were characterized by social unrest and diseases such as typhoid and tuberculosis. Progressive social reformers attempted to ameliorate these conditions, but were unsuccessful, particularly with respect to African-Americans.[