Famous research institutes
In the early medieval period, several astronomical observatories were built in the Islamic world. The first of these was the 9th-century
Baghdad observatory built during the time of the
al-Ma'mun, though the most famous were the 13th-century
Maragheh observatory, 15th-century
Ulugh Beg Observatory.
The earliest research institute in Europe was
Uraniborg complex on the island of
Hven, a 16th-century
astronomical laboratory set up to make highly accurate measurements of the stars. In the
United States there are numerous notable research institutes including
The Scripps Research Institute,
Beckman Institute, and
Hughes Aircraft used a research institute structure for its organizational model.
Thomas Edison, dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park",
 was one of the first
inventors to apply the principles of
mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention in the late 1800s, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.