Republic of Venice

Most Serene Republic of Venice
  • Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia
  • Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta
697–1797
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
The Republic of Venice in 1789
CapitalEraclea
(697–742)
Malamocco
(742–810)
Venice
(810–1797)
LanguagesItalian
Venetian
Latin
GovernmentParliamentary merchant republic with elective monarchistic features.
Doge
 • 697–717 (first)Paolo Lucio Anafestoa
 • 1789–1797 (last)Ludovico Manin
LegislatureGreat Council
 • Upper ChamberSenate
 • Lower ChamberCouncil of Ten
Historical eraMiddle Ages - Early modern period
 • Established1697
 • Golden Bull of Alexios I
1082
 • Fourth Crusade1202–04
 • Battle of Lepanto1571
 • Treaty of Leoben17 April 1797
 • Treaty Campo Formio18 October 1797
CurrencyVenetian ducat
Venetian lira
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Simple Labarum.svgByzantine Empire
Venetian Province
Cisalpine Republic
French departments of Greece
Today part of Italy
 Slovenia
 Croatia
 Montenegro
 Albania
 Greece
 Cyprus
a. ^ Paolo Lucio Anafesto is traditionally the first Doge of Venice, but John Julius Norwich suggests that this may be a mistake for Paul, Exarch of Ravenna, and that the traditional second doge Marcello Tegalliano may have been the similarly named magister militum to Paul. Their existence as doges is uncorroborated by any source before the 11th century, but as Norwich suggests, is probably not entirely legendary. Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is, thus, dated to 697.

The Republic of Venice (Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Venetian: Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy. It dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. The city became home to an extremely wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons. Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was also the birthplace of great European explorers, especially Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello.

The republic was ruled by the Doge, who was elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of merchants and aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens generally supported the system of governance. The city-state enforced strict laws and employed ruthless tactics in its prisons.

The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic. The city state suffered defeats from the navy of the Ottoman Empire. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and then French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, and the Ionian French departments of Greece. Venice then became a part of a unified Italy in the 19th century.

Name

It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia, Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta, or Venetian: Repùblica de Venesia) and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics".

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Republik Venedig
azərbaycanca: Venesiya Respublikası
Bân-lâm-gú: Venezia Kiōng-hô-kok
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вэнэцыянская рэспубліка
brezhoneg: Republik Venezia
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Venesia
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Venice
Nederlands: Republiek Venetië
Nedersaksies: Republiek Venies
norsk nynorsk: Republikken Venezia
پنجابی: لوکراج وینس
Plattdüütsch: Venedig (Republiek)
Simple English: Republic of Venice
slovenčina: Benátska republika
slovenščina: Beneška republika
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mletačka Republika
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Venezia
Lingua Franca Nova: Republica de Venezia