Republic of Macedonia

Republic of Macedonia

Република Македонија (Macedonian)
Republika Makedonija
Денес над Македонија
Denes nad Makedonija

(English: "Today over Macedonia")
Republic of Macedonia (orthographic projection).svg
Location of  Republic of Macedonia  (green)

in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
42°0′N 21°26′E / 42°0′N 21°26′E / 42.000; 21.433
Official languagesMacedonian[1]
  • Official regional languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentParliamentary republic
• President
Gjorge Ivanov
Zoran Zaev
Independence from SFR Yugoslavia
• Declared
8 September 1991
• Officially recognized
by the United Nations
8 April 1993
• Total
25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) (145th)
• Water (%)
• 2017[4] estimate
2,103,721 est.[4]
• 2002 census
• Density
80.1/km2 (207.5/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$32.265 billion[5]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$12.374 billion[5]
• Per capita
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 33.6[6]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.757[7]
high · 80th
CurrencyMacedonian denar (MKD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+389
Patron saintSaint Clement of Ohrid[8]
ISO 3166 codeMK
Internet TLD

Macedonia (ə/ (About this soundlisten); Macedonian: Македонија, translit. Makedonija [makɛˈdɔnija]), officially the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Република Македонија, translit. Republika Makedonija [rɛˈpublika ˌmakɛˈdɔnija] (About this soundlisten)), is a country in the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991.

The country became a member of the United Nations in 1993, but, as a result of an ongoing dispute with Greece over the use of the name Macedonia, was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[9][10] (sometimes abbreviated as FYROM and FYR Macedonia), a term that is also used by international organizations such as the European Union,[11] the Council of Europe,[12] and NATO.[13]

On 17 June 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa agreement which would see the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia, pending approval from parliament.[14][15] A 30 September non-binding[16] national referendum on the matter passed with 90% approval, although it did not reach the required 50% turnout, leaving the final decision with parliament to ratify the result.[17] On 19 October 2018, parliament approved of the name change with the required two-thirds majority needed to enact constitutional changes being reached.[18] The government has now begun the procedure of completing the constitutional change needed to change the country's name, which is expected to be completed by January at the latest.[19]

A landlocked country, the Republic of Macedonia has borders with Kosovo[a] to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.[20] It constitutes approximately the northwestern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which also comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and smaller portions of southwestern Bulgaria and southeastern Albania. The country's geography is defined primarily by mountains, valleys, and rivers. The capital and largest city, Skopje, is home to roughly a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians, a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25 percent, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, Bosniaks, Aromanians and others.

This region's history dates back to antiquity, beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia, probably a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity.[21] In the late sixth century BC, the area was incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire, then annexed by the Kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century BC. The Romans conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Τhe area remained part of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, and was often raided and settled by Slavic tribes beginning in the sixth century of the Christian era. Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian, Byzantine and Serbian empires, it gradually came under Ottoman dominion from the 14th until the early 20th century, when following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of Macedonia came under Serbian rule. In the aftermath of the First World War (1914–1918), it became incorporated into the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which after the Second World War was re-established as a republic (1945) and which became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963. Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic within Yugoslavia until its peaceful secession in 1991.

The sovereign state of Macedonia is a parliamentary republic and member of the UN and of the Council of Europe. Since 2005 it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. Although one of the poorest countries in Europe, Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy.


The state's name derives from the Greek Μακεδονία (Makedonía),[22][23] a kingdom (later, region) named after the ancient Macedonians. Their name, Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), derives ultimately from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός (makednós), 'tall' or 'taper',[24] which shares the same root as the adjective μακρός (makrós), 'long', 'tall', or 'high', in ancient Greek.[25] The name is originally believed to have meant either 'highlanders' or 'the tall ones', possibly descriptive of the people.[23][26][27] However, according to linguist Robert S. P. Beekes, both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology.[28]

Other Languages
Acèh: Makèdonia
Alemannisch: Republik Mazedonien
armãneashti: Republica Machedonia
Avañe'ẽ: Masendoña
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рэспубліка Македонія
भोजपुरी: मेसीडोनिया
Bislama: Macedonia
Boarisch: Mazedonien
bosanski: Makedonija
čeština: Makedonie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Macedonia
chiShona: Macedonia
corsu: Macedonia
dansk: Makedonien
davvisámegiella: Makedonia
Deutsch: Mazedonien
ދިވެހިބަސް: މެސެޑޯނިއާ
dolnoserbski: Makedońska
eesti: Makedoonia
Frysk: Masedoanje
Fulfulde: Masedoniya
furlan: Macedonie
Gagauz: Makedoniya
Gàidhlig: Masadoinia
ગુજરાતી: મેસેડોનિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: मॅसिडोनिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Macedonia Khiung-fò-koet
хальмг: Масидин Орн
हिन्दी: मैसिडोनिया
hornjoserbsce: Makedonska
hrvatski: Makedonija
Igbo: Macedonia
Ilokano: Macedonia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মেসিডোনিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Makedonia
Interlingue: Macedonia
isiZulu: IMakedoniya
עברית: מקדוניה
kalaallisut: Makedonia
къарачай-малкъар: Македония
ქართული: მაკედონია
kaszëbsczi: Macedoniô
Kinyarwanda: Masedoniya
Kongo: Makedonia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Repiblik d Masedoni
Кыргызча: Македония
Ladino: Makedonia
latviešu: Maķedonija
Lëtzebuergesch: Republik Mazedonien
lietuvių: Makedonija
Ligure: Maçedònia
Lingua Franca Nova: Macedonia
Livvinkarjala: Makedounii
lumbaart: Macedonia
magyar: Macedónia
македонски: Македонија
Malagasy: Masedonia
Māori: Makerōnia
მარგალური: მაკედონია
مازِرونی: شمالی مقدونیه
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Macedonia
Mirandés: Macedónia
мокшень: Македоние
Dorerin Naoero: Matedoniya
Nederlands: Macedonië (land)
Nedersaksies: Macedonie (land)
नेपाल भाषा: म्यासेडोनिया
нохчийн: Македони
Nordfriisk: Matsedoonien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Repablik o' Masedoenya
norsk nynorsk: Republikken Makedonia
олык марий: Македоний
Oromoo: Maqedooniyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Makedoniya Respublikasi
Pangasinan: Masedoniya
پنجابی: مقدونیہ
Papiamentu: Macedonia
Piemontèis: Macedònia
Plattdüütsch: Republiek Makedonien
polski: Macedonia
Ποντιακά: ΠΓΔΜ
Qaraqalpaqsha: Makedoniya
qırımtatarca: Makedoniya Cumhuriyeti
Runa Simi: Makidunya
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱟᱥᱤᱰᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ
संस्कृतम्: मेसेडोनिया
Seeltersk: Makedonien
Simple English: Republic of Macedonia
SiSwati: IMakhedoniya
slovenčina: Macedónsko
slovenščina: Makedonija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Макєдонїꙗ
ślůnski: Macedůńijo
Sranantongo: Masedoniyakondre
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Republika Makedonija
Basa Sunda: Makédonia
suomi: Makedonia
svenska: Makedonien
తెలుగు: మేసిడోనియా
tetun: Masedónia
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ماكېدونىيە
vepsän kel’: Makedonii
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Macedonia
Volapük: Makedoniyän
West-Vlams: Macedonië (land)
ייִדיש: מאקעדאניע
Zeêuws: Macedonië
žemaitėška: Makeduonėjė