Renaissance

  • david, by michelangelo (1501–1504), accademia di belle arti, florence, italy, is a masterpiece of renaissance and world art. depicting the hebrew prophet-prodigy-king david as a muscular greek athlete, the christian humanist ideal can be seen in the statue's grand features, posture, and attitude; this ideal can also be seen in other great works of art from early modern italy.[1]

    the renaissance (uk: s/ ay-sənss, us: s/ (about this soundlisten) ren-ə-sahnss)[2][a] was a period in european history marking the transition from the middle ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. it occurred after the crisis of the late middle ages. in addition to the standard periodization, proponents of a long renaissance put its beginning in the 14th century and its end in the 17th century. the traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages.[4][5]

    the intellectual basis of the renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of roman humanitas and the rediscovery of classical greek philosophy, such as that of protagoras, who said that "man is the measure of all things." this new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the renaissance were not uniformly experienced across europe: the very first traces appear in italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of dante and the paintings of giotto.

    as a cultural movement, the renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform. in politics, the renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, and in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. although the renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as leonardo da vinci and michelangelo, who inspired the term "renaissance man".[6][7]

    the renaissance began in the 14th century in florence, italy.[8] various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the medici,[9][10] and the migration of greek scholars and their texts to italy following the fall of constantinople to the ottoman turks.[11][12][13] other major centres were northern italian city-states such as venice, genoa, milan, bologna, and finally rome during the renaissance papacy.

    the renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.[14] the art historian erwin panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "renaissance":

    it is perhaps no accident that the factuality of the italian renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments, political and religious situations, and, most particularly, natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly ever by historians of art.[15]

    some observers have called into question whether the renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the middle ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity,[16] while social and economic historians, especially of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras,[17] which are linked, as panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".[18]

    the term rinascita ('rebirth') first appeared in giorgio vasari's lives of the artists (c. 1550), anglicized as the renaissance in the 1830s.[19] the word has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the carolingian renaissance (8th and 9th centuries), ottonian renaissance (10th and 11th century), and the renaissance of the 12th century.[20]

  • overview
  • origins
  • characteristics
  • spread
  • historiography
  • other renaissances
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

David, by Michelangelo (1501–1504), Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, Italy, is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art. Depicting the Hebrew prophet-prodigy-king David as a muscular Greek athlete, the Christian humanist ideal can be seen in the statue's grand features, posture, and attitude; this ideal can also be seen in other great works of art from early modern Italy.[1]

The Renaissance (UK: s/ AY-sənss, US: s/ (About this soundlisten) REN-ə-sahnss)[2][a] was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. It occurred after the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. In addition to the standard periodization, proponents of a long Renaissance put its beginning in the 14th century and its end in the 17th century. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the Middle Ages.[4][5]

The intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the very first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.

As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, and in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".[6][7]

The Renaissance began in the 14th century in Florence, Italy.[8] Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici,[9][10] and the migration of Greek scholars and their texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.[11][12][13] Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, and finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy.

The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.[14] The art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance":

It is perhaps no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments, political and religious situations, and, most particularly, natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly ever by historians of Art.[15]

Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity,[16] while social and economic historians, especially of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras,[17] which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".[18]

The term rinascita ('rebirth') first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists (c. 1550), anglicized as the Renaissance in the 1830s.[19] The word has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance (8th and 9th centuries), Ottonian Renaissance (10th and 11th century), and the Renaissance of the 12th century.[20]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Renaissance
Alemannisch: Renaissance
አማርኛ: ዘመነ ህዳሴ
العربية: عصر النهضة
aragonés: Renaiximiento
Արեւմտահայերէն: Վերածնունդ
asturianu: Renacimientu
azərbaycanca: İntibah dövrü
تۆرکجه: رونسانس
বাংলা: রেনেসাঁ
Bân-lâm-gú: Bûn-gē ho̍k-heng
башҡортса: Яңырыу
беларуская: Адраджэнне
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Адраджэньне
български: Ренесанс
Boarisch: Renaissance
bosanski: Renesansa
brezhoneg: Azginivelezh
català: Renaixement
Чӑвашла: Чӗрӗлӳ
Cebuano: Renasans
čeština: Renesance
Cymraeg: Dadeni Dysg
Deutsch: Renaissance
eesti: Renessanss
Ελληνικά: Αναγέννηση
español: Renacimiento
Esperanto: Renesanco
estremeñu: Renacéncia
euskara: Pizkundea
فارسی: رنسانس
Fiji Hindi: Renaissance
føroyskt: Renessansan
français: Renaissance
furlan: Rinassiment
galego: Renacemento
한국어: 르네상스
հայերեն: Վերածնունդ
हिन्दी: पुनर्जागरण
hrvatski: Renesansa
Ilokano: Renasimiento
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad Renaisans
interlingua: Renascentia
íslenska: Endurreisnin
italiano: Rinascimento
עברית: רנסאנס
ქართული: რენესანსი
қазақша: Ренессанс
Kiswahili: Renaissance
Kreyòl ayisyen: Renesans
kriyòl gwiyannen: Rounésans
kurdî: Ronesans
Кыргызча: Кайра жаралуу
latviešu: Renesanse
Lëtzebuergesch: Renaissance
лезги: Ренессанс
lietuvių: Renesansas
Ligure: Renascimento
Limburgs: Renaissance
Lingua Franca Nova: Renase
lumbaart: Renassiment
magyar: Reneszánsz
македонски: Ренесанса
მარგალური: რენესანსი
مازِرونی: رنسانس
Bahasa Melayu: Zaman Pembaharuan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ùng-ngiê-hók-hĭng
Mirandés: Renacimiento
Nederlands: Renaissance
Nedersaksies: Renaissance
नेपाली: पुनर्जागरण
日本語: ルネサンス
Nordfriisk: Renaissance
norsk nynorsk: Renessansen
occitan: Renaissença
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Uygʻonish davri
پنجابی: نشاۃ ثانیہ
Patois: Renesans
Picard: Ernaiçance
Piemontèis: Arnassensa
Plattdüütsch: Renaissance
polski: Renesans
português: Renascimento
română: Renașterea
rumantsch: Renaschientscha
русиньскый: Ренесанція
русский: Возрождение
саха тыла: Ренессанс
Seeltersk: Renaissance
shqip: Rilindja
sicilianu: Rinascimentu
සිංහල: පුනරුදය
Simple English: Renaissance
slovenčina: Renesancia
slovenščina: Renesansa
کوردی: ڕینێسانس
српски / srpski: Ренесанса
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Renesansa
svenska: Renässansen
Tagalog: Renasimiyento
Taqbaylit: Taleslalit
Türkçe: Rönesans
Türkmençe: Wozroždeniýe
українська: Відродження
vèneto: Rinasimento
Tiếng Việt: Phục Hưng
Võro: Renessanss
文言: 文藝復興
West-Vlams: Renaissance
Winaray: Renasimyento
吴语: 文艺复兴
ייִדיש: רענעסאנס
粵語: 文藝復興
žemaitėška: Renesansos
中文: 文艺复兴