Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2]

Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine[3], sacred things[4], faith[5], a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, and other things. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs.[8]

There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide,[9] but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion.[10] The religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion, atheists and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs.[11]

The study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief.[12]

Concept and etymology

Religion (from O.Fr. religion religious community, from L. religionem (nom. religio) "respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods, sense of right, moral obligation, sanctity",[13] "obligation, the bond between man and the gods"[14]) is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re (again) with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully. The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods."[15] Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors.[16] The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon.[17] Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect, probably from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re (again) + ligare or to reconnect, which was made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28.[18][19] The medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the 'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight 'of the religion of Avys'".[20]

In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts; never as doctrine, practice, or actual source of knowledge.[21][22] In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors, rulers, and even towards God.[23] Religio was most often used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, caution, anxiety, fear; feelings of being bound, restricted, inhibited; which arose from heightened attention in any mundane context.[24] The term was also closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term supertitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times.[24] When religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders.[23][20] The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s.[23] The concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities.[23]

In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity. The term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more frequently used in the writings of Josephus in the first century AD. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others; to cultic practices. It was often contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear.[25]

The concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries,[26][27] despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, and others did not have a word or even a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the people or the cultures in which these sacred texts were written.[28][29] For example, there is no precise equivalent of religion in Hebrew, and Judaism does not distinguish clearly between religious, national, racial, or ethnic identities.[30] One of its central concepts is halakha, meaning the walk or path sometimes translated as law, which guides religious practice and belief and many aspects of daily life.[31] The Greek word threskeia, which was used by Greek writers such as Herodotus and Josephus, is found in the New Testament. Threskeia is sometimes translated as religion in today's translations, however, the term was understood as worship well into the medieval period.[2] In the Quran, the Arabic word din is often translated as religion in modern translations, but up to the mid-1600s translators expressed din as law.[2] Even in the 1st century CE, Josephus had used the Greek term ioudaismos, which some translate as Judaism today, even though he used it as an ethnic term, not one linked to modern abstract concepts of religion as a set of beliefs.[2] The Sanskrit word dharma, sometimes translated as religion, also means law. Throughout classical South Asia, the study of law consisted of concepts such as penance through piety and ceremonial as well as practical traditions. Medieval Japan at first had a similar union between imperial law and universal or Buddha law, but these later became independent sources of power.[32][33]

The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language since such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages.[21][34][22] Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures.[35][36] Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people do and believe.[37]

Though traditions, sacred texts, and practices have existed throughout time, most cultures did not align with western conceptions of religion since they did not separate everyday life from the sacred. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the terms Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, and world religions first entered the English language.[38][39][40] No one self-identified as a Hindu or Buddhist or other similar terms before the 1800s.[41] "Hindu" has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.[42][43] Throughout its long history, Japan had no concept of religion since there was no corresponding Japanese word, nor anything close to its meaning, but when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan in 1853 and forced the Japanese government to sign treaties demanding, among other things, freedom of religion, the country had to contend with this Western idea.[44][45]

According to the philologist Max Müller in the 19th century, the root of the English word religion, the Latin religio, was originally used to mean only reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety (which Cicero further derived to mean diligence).[46][47] Max Müller characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt, Persia, and India, as having a similar power structure at this point in history. What is called ancient religion today, they would have only called law.[48]

Other Languages
Acèh: Agama
Afrikaans: Religie
Alemannisch: Religion
አማርኛ: ሃይማኖት
Аҧсшәа: Адин
العربية: دين (معتقد)
aragonés: Relichión
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܬܘܕܝܬܐ
armãneashti: Religie
arpetan: Religion
অসমীয়া: ধৰ্ম
asturianu: Relixón
Avañe'ẽ: Tupãrape
Aymar aru: Yupaychäwi
azərbaycanca: Din
تۆرکجه: دین
bamanankan: Diinɛ
বাংলা: ধর্ম
Bahasa Banjar: Agama
Bân-lâm-gú: Chong-kàu
Basa Banyumasan: Agama
башҡортса: Дин
беларуская: Рэлігія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рэлігія
български: Религия
Boarisch: Religion
བོད་ཡིག: ཆོས་ལུགས།
bosanski: Religija
brezhoneg: Relijion
буряад: Шажан
català: Religió
Чӑвашла: Тĕн
Cebuano: Tinuohan
čeština: Náboženství
chiShona: Chinamato
corsu: Riligioni
Cymraeg: Crefydd
dansk: Religion
Deutsch: Religion
eesti: Religioon
Ελληνικά: Θρησκεία
español: Religión
Esperanto: Religio
estremeñu: Religión
euskara: Erlijio
فارسی: دین
Fiji Hindi: Dharam
føroyskt: Átrúnaður
français: Religion
Frysk: Religy
furlan: Religjon
Gaeilge: Creideamh
Gaelg: Craueeaght
Gagauz: Din
galego: Relixión
贛語: 宗教
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: धर्म
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chûng-kau
한국어: 종교
Hausa: Addini
հայերեն: Կրոն
हिन्दी: धर्म (पंथ)
hrvatski: Religija
Ido: Religio
Ilokano: Relihion
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ধর্ম
Bahasa Indonesia: Agama
interlingua: Religion
Interlingue: Religion
Ирон: Дин
íslenska: Trúarbrögð
italiano: Religione
עברית: דת
Basa Jawa: Agama
kalaallisut: Upperisarsiorneq
ქართული: რელიგია
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مَزہَب
kaszëbsczi: Religijô
қазақша: Дін
kernowek: Kryjyans
Kiswahili: Dini
Kongo: Lukwikilu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Relijyon
kurdî: Dîn
Кыргызча: Дин
Ladino: Relijion
лакку: Дин
лезги: Дин
لۊری شومالی: دین
Latina: Religio
latviešu: Reliģija
Lëtzebuergesch: Relioun
lietuvių: Religija
Ligure: Religion
Limburgs: Relizjie
lingála: Bonzámbe
Livvinkarjala: Uskondo
la .lojban.: lijda
lumbaart: Religion
magyar: Vallás
македонски: Религија
മലയാളം: മതം
Malti: Reliġjon
मराठी: धर्म
მარგალური: რელიგია
مصرى: دين
مازِرونی: دین
Bahasa Melayu: Agama
Baso Minangkabau: Agamo
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Cŭng-gáu
Mirandés: Relegion
монгол: Шашин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘာသာတရား
Nāhuatl: Teomatiliztli
Nederlands: Religie
Nedersaksies: Geleuf
नेपाली: धर्म
नेपाल भाषा: धर्म
日本語: 宗教
Napulitano: Religgione
нохчийн: Дин
Nordfriisk: Religion
Norfuk / Pitkern: Rilijin
norsk: Religion
norsk nynorsk: Religion
Nouormand: Èrligion
Novial: Religione
occitan: Religions
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଧର୍ମ
Oromoo: Amantii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Din
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਧਰਮ
पालि: धम्म
پنجابی: مت
Papiamentu: Religion
پښتو: مذهب
Patois: Rilijan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សាសនា
Piemontèis: Religion
Tok Pisin: Lotu
Plattdüütsch: Religion
polski: Religia
português: Religião
Qaraqalpaqsha: Din
română: Religie
rumantsch: Religiun
Runa Simi: Iñiy
русиньскый: Реліґія
русский: Религия
саха тыла: Итэҕэл
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ
sardu: Religione
Scots: Releegion
Seeltersk: Religion
Sesotho sa Leboa: Bodumedi
shqip: Feja
sicilianu: Riliggiuni
සිංහල: ආගම්
Simple English: Religion
سنڌي: مذهب
SiSwati: Lukholo
slovenčina: Náboženstvo
slovenščina: Religija
ślůnski: Religijo
Soomaaliga: Diin
کوردی: ئایین
српски / srpski: Религија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Religija
suomi: Uskonto
svenska: Religion
Tagalog: Relihiyon
தமிழ்: சமயம்
Taqbaylit: Ajjed
татарча/tatarça: Дин
తెలుగు: మతము
ไทย: ศาสนา
тоҷикӣ: Дин
Türkçe: Din
Türkmençe: Din
українська: Релігія
اردو: مذہب
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسلام
vèneto: Rełijon
vepsän kel’: Religii
Tiếng Việt: Tôn giáo
Volapük: Rel
Võro: Usk
walon: Rilidjon
文言: 宗教
Winaray: Relihiyón
吴语: 宗教
Xitsonga: Vukhongeri
ייִדיש: רעליגיע
Yorùbá: Ẹ̀sìn
粵語: 宗教
Zazaki: Din
Zeêuws: Religie
žemaitėška: Viera
中文: 宗教
डोटेली: धर्म
ГӀалгӀай: Ди
Lingua Franca Nova: Relijio