Quran

Quran
A paper Quran opened halfwise on top of a brown cloth
Information
Religion Islam
Period 609–632

The Quran ( n/ [a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎‎ al-Qurʾān, [b] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran [c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God ( Allah). [1] It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. [2] [3] [4] [5] The Quran is divided into chapters ( surah in Arabic), which are then divided into verses ( ayah).

Muslims believe that the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel ( Jibril), [6] [7] gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, [8] when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death. [1] [9] [10] Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophethood, [11] and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad. The word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the text of the Quran, although different names and words are also said to be references to the Quran. [12]

According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations. [13] Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it. [14] These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning. [13]

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. [15] [16] [17] The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. [18] [19] The Quran is used along with authentic and reliable hadith to interpret sharia law. [20] During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. [21]

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse ( ayah) is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir. [22]

Etymology and meaning

The word qurʼān appears about 70 times in the Quran itself, assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun ( maṣdar) of the Arabic verb qaraʼa (قرأ), meaning "he read" or "he recited". The Syriac equivalent is (ܩܪܝܢܐ) qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". [23] While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. [1] Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. [1] An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it (qurʼānahu)." [24]

In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited [by Muhammad]". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." [25] The word may also assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. [26]

The term also has closely related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran. Each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts. Such terms include kitāb (book); āyah (sign); and sūrah (scripture). The latter two terms also denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts, usually with a definite article (al-), the word is referred to as the "revelation" ( waḥy), that which has been "sent down" ( tanzīl) at intervals. [27] [28] Other related words are: dhikr (remembrance), used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, and ḥikmah (wisdom), sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it. [1] [29]

The Quran describes itself as "the discernment" (al-furqān), "the mother book" (umm al-kitāb), "the guide" ( huda), "the wisdom" ( hikmah), "the remembrance" (dhikr) and "the revelation" (tanzīl; something sent down, signifying the descent of an object from a higher place to lower place). [30] Another term is al-kitāb (The Book), though it is also used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels. The term mus'haf ('written work') is often used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is also used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. [1]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kuru'an
адыгабзэ: КъурIан
Afrikaans: Koran
Alemannisch: Koran
አማርኛ: ቁርአን
Ænglisc: Curān
aragonés: Alcorán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܘܪܐܢ
armãneashti: Coranu
arpetan: Alcoran
অসমীয়া: কোৰআন
asturianu: Corán
Avañe'ẽ: Korã
авар: Къуръан
azərbaycanca: Quran
تۆرکجه: قورآن
bamanankan: Kuranɛ
বাংলা: কুরআন
Bân-lâm-gú: Khó-lân-keng
Basa Banyumasan: Al-Qur'an
башҡортса: Ҡөрьән
беларуская: Каран
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Каран
Bikol Central: Koran
български: Коран
Boarisch: Koran
bosanski: Kur'an
brezhoneg: Koran
буряад: Коран
català: Alcorà
Чӑвашла: Коран
čeština: Korán
Cymraeg: Coran
dansk: Koranen
Deutsch: Koran
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކީރިތި ޤުރުއާން
dolnoserbski: Koran
eesti: Koraan
Ελληνικά: Κοράνιο
español: Corán
Esperanto: Korano
estremeñu: Corán
euskara: Korana
فارسی: قرآن
føroyskt: Koranin
français: Coran
Frysk: Koaran
Fulfulde: Alqur'aana
Gaeilge: An Córan
galego: Corán
ગુજરાતી: કુરાન
한국어: 꾸란
Հայերեն: Ղուրան
हिन्दी: क़ुरआन
hornjoserbsce: Koran
hrvatski: Kuran
Ido: Korano
Ilokano: Koran
Bahasa Indonesia: Al-Qur'an
interlingua: Koran
Ирон: Хъуыран
íslenska: Kóran
italiano: Corano
עברית: הקוראן
Basa Jawa: Al-Qur'an
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕುರಾನು
къарачай-малкъар: Къуран
ქართული: ყურანი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: قُرآن
қазақша: Құран
Kiswahili: Qurani
Kurdî: Quran
Кыргызча: Куран
кырык мары: Коран
лакку: Кьуран
лезги: Къуръан
Latina: Alcoranus
latviešu: Korāns
Lëtzebuergesch: Koran
lietuvių: Koranas
Limburgs: Koraan
lumbaart: Coran
magyar: Korán
मैथिली: कुरान
македонски: Куран
Malagasy: Korana
മലയാളം: ഖുർആൻ
Malti: Koran
मराठी: कुराण
მარგალური: ყურანი
مصرى: القرآن
مازِرونی: قرآن
Bahasa Melayu: Al-Quran
Baso Minangkabau: Al-Qur'an
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gū-làng-gĭng
Mirandés: Alcoron
монгол: Коран
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိုရမ်ကျမ်း
Nederlands: Koran
नेपाली: कुरान
日本語: クルアーン
Napulitano: Corano
нохчийн: Къуръан
norsk bokmål: Koranen
norsk nynorsk: Koranen
occitan: Alcoran
олык марий: Коран
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qurʼon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੁਰਾਨ
پنجابی: قرآن
پښتو: قرآن
Patois: Koran
Plattdüütsch: Koran
polski: Koran
português: Alcorão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Quran
qırımtatarca: Quran
română: Coran
Runa Simi: Quran
русский: Коран
саха тыла: Коран
संस्कृतम्: कुरान्
Scots: Quran
shqip: Kurani
sicilianu: Curanu
සිංහල: කුර්ආන්
Simple English: Qur'an
سنڌي: قرآن
slovenčina: Korán
slovenščina: Koran
Soomaaliga: Qur'aan
کوردیی ناوەندی: قورئان
српски / srpski: Куран
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kur'an
Basa Sunda: Qur'an
suomi: Koraani
svenska: Koranen
Tagalog: Qur'an
Taqbaylit: Leqran
татарча/tatarça: Коръән
తెలుగు: ఖోరాన్
тоҷикӣ: Қуръон
Türkçe: Kur'an
українська: Коран
اردو: قرآن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قۇرئان كەرىم
Tiếng Việt: Qur’an
Võro: Koraan
walon: Alcoran
文言: 古蘭經
Winaray: Koran
Wolof: Alxuraan
吴语: 古兰经
ייִדיש: קאראן
Yorùbá: Kùránì
粵語: 可蘭經
Zazaki: Qurane
中文: 古兰经