Queen Victoria

Victoria
Photograph of Queen Victoria, 1882
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901
Coronation28 June 1838
PredecessorWilliam IV
SuccessorEdward VII
Prime MinistersSee list
Empress of India
Reign1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar1 January 1877
SuccessorEdward VII
Born24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died22 January 1901(1901-01-22) (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial4 February 1901
Spouse
Issue
Detail
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
HouseHanover
FatherPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
MotherPrincess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
ReligionProtestant
SignatureVictoria's signature

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.

Her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.

Birth and family

Victoria aged 4
Portrait of Victoria aged four by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823

Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1]

Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, George, the Prince Regent.[3]

At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, the Duke of York; William, the Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, the Duke of Kent.[4] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters (born in 1819 and 1820) died as infants. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: I Viktoriya
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вікторыя (каралева Вялікабрытаніі)
български: Виктория
français: Victoria (reine)
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Victoria Ńg-vòng
हिन्दी: विक्टोरिया
Bahasa Indonesia: Victoria dari Britania Raya
Kabɩyɛ: Reine Victoria
kernowek: Viktorya
македонски: Кралица Викторија
مازِرونی: ملکه ویکتوریا
Bahasa Melayu: Ratu Victoria
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Victoria Nṳ̄-uòng
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဝိတိုရိယ ဘုရင်မ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Viktoriya
Piemontèis: Vitòria
Plattdüütsch: Victoria (Hannober)
Runa Simi: Victoria (quya)
Gagana Samoa: Masiofo Vitoria
संस्कृतम्: विक्टोरिया
Simple English: Queen Victoria
slovenščina: Viktorija Britanska
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Viktorija
Tiếng Việt: Nữ hoàng Victoria