Qing dynasty

Great Qing
大清
ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ
1636–1912
Anthem
《鞏金甌》
" Gong Jin'ou"
("Cup of Solid Gold")
Qing empire, 1765
Capital Peking ( Shuntian Prefecture)
Languages Mandarin, Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan, Chagatai, [1] numerous regional languages and varieties of Chinese
Religion Heaven worship, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism, Islam, Shamanism, others
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 •  1636–1643 Hong Taiji (founder)
 •  1644–1661 Fulin (first in Peking)
 •  1908–1912 Puyi (last)
Regent
 •  1908–1912 Zaifeng
Prime Minister
 •  1911 Yikuang
 •  1911–1912 Yuan Shikai
Historical era Imperial era
 •  Later Jin rule 1616–1636
 •  Dynasty established 1636
 •  Qing conquest of Beijing 1644
 •  First Opium War 1840–1842
 •  Second Opium War 1856–1860
 •  Sino-Japanese War 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895
 •  Xinhai Revolution 10 October 1911
 •  Abdication of Puyi 12 February 1912
Area
 •  1790 [2] 13,100,000 km2 (5,100,000 sq mi)
 •  1880 [2] 11,500,000 km2 (4,400,000 sq mi)
Population
 •  1740 est. 140,000,000 
 •  1790 est. 301,000,000 
 •  1898 est. 395,918,000 
Currency Cash (wén)

Tael (liǎng)

Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Jin
Shun
Southern Ming
Tungning Kingdom
Dzungar
Republic of China
BogdKhan Mongolia

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (English: ŋ/), also called the Qing Empire by itself or the Manchu dynasty by foreigners, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state.

The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing " Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Jurchen clans into a unified entity, which he renamed as the Manchus. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui extended the conquest of China proper for nearly four decades and was not completed until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. The early rulers maintained their Manchu ways, and while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" to the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus. They also adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories.

During the Qianlong reign (1735–96) the dynasty reached its apogee but then began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War, European powers imposed unequal treaties, free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–64) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by Empress Dowager Cixi, a conservative leader. When the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign Yihetuan ("Boxers"), the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol the government then initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformist monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on October 11, 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on February 12, 1912. The empire was briefly restored on July 1 of 1917, before it was once again overthrown 11 days later.

Qing dynasty
Chinese name
Chinese 清朝
Great Qing
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
Дайчин улс
Mongolian script ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ
Abkai Daiqing gurun
Möllendorff Daicing gurun
History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE
Xia dynasty c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE
Shang dynasty c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE
Zhou dynasty c. 1046 – 256 BCE
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn
    Warring States
IMPERIAL
Qin dynasty 221–206 BCE
Han dynasty 206 BCE – 220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin Sixteen Kingdoms
Northern and Southern dynasties
420–589
Sui dynasty 581–618
Tang dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou dynasty 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms

907–960
Liao dynasty
907–1125
Song dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song Western Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan dynasty 1271–1368
Ming dynasty 1368–1644
Qing dynasty 1644–1912
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic of China 1949–present

Names

Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin (lit. "gold") state in honor both of the 12–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan (Aisin being Manchu for the Chinese (jīn, "gold")). [3] His son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. [4] There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng (lit. "clear" or "pure"). The name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty ( ), which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" ( ) and "moon" ( ), both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system. The character Qīng ( ) is composed of "water" ( ) and "azure" ( ), both associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water. The water imagery of the new name may also have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. [5] The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun that was only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the later part of the dynasty, however, even the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. [6]

The chapter China (中國) in a Chinese, Manchu, and Mongolian languages (trilingual) textbook published during the Qing dynasty; the passage displayed above reads: "Our country China is located in East Asia... For 5000 years, culture flourished (in the land of China)... Since we are Chinese, how can we not love China."

After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China" (中國, Zhōngguó; "Middle Kingdom"), and referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu (Dulimbai means "central" or "middle," gurun means "nation" or "state"). The emperors equated the lands of the Qing state (including present-day Northeast China, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas) as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, and rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China". They used both "China" and "Qing" to refer to their state in official documents, international treaties (as the Qing was known internationally as "China" [7] or the "Chinese Empire" [8]) and foreign affairs, and "Chinese language" (Dulimbai gurun i bithe) included Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and "Chinese people" (中國之人 Zhōngguó zhī rén; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all subjects of the empire. [9] In the Chinese-language versions of its treaties and its maps of the world, the Qing government used "Qing" and "China" interchangeably. [10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Qing-dinastie
Alemannisch: Qing-Dynastie
aragonés: Dinastía Qing
asturianu: Dinastía Qing
azərbaycanca: Tzin sülaləsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Chheng-kok
башҡортса: Цин империяһы
беларуская: Імперыя Цын
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дынастыя Цын
български: Цин (17-20 век)
bosanski: Dinastija Qing
brezhoneg: Tierniezh Qing
català: Dinastia Qing
čeština: Říše Čching
Deutsch: Qing-Dynastie
español: Dinastía Qing
Esperanto: Dinastio Qing
euskara: Qing dinastia
Fiji Hindi: Qing Dynasty
français: Dynastie Qing
贛語:
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chhîn-chhèu
한국어: 청나라
hrvatski: Dinastija Qing
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Qing
íslenska: Tjingveldið
italiano: Dinastia Qing
Basa Jawa: Wangsa Qing
къарачай-малкъар: Цин династия
Kiswahili: Nasaba ya Qing
Кыргызча: Цин империясы
Latina: Domus Qing
latviešu: Cjinu dinastija
მარგალური: ცინიშ დინასტია
مازِرونی: چینگ سلسله
Bahasa Melayu: Dinasti Qing
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chĭng-dièu
монгол: Чин улс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ချင်းမင်းဆက်
Nederlands: Qing-dynastie
नेपाली: चिङ वंश
नेपाल भाषा: चिङ्ग राजवंश
日本語:
norsk nynorsk: Qing
occitan: Dinastia Qing
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sin (sulola)
پنجابی: چنگ سلطنت
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រាជវង្សឆេង
Plattdüütsch: Qing-Dynastie
português: Dinastia Qing
română: Dinastia Qing
русский: Империя Цин
Simple English: Qing dynasty
slovenčina: Čching
slovenščina: Dinastija Čing
српски / srpski: Династија Ћинг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dinastija Qing
svenska: Qingdynastin
татарча/tatarça: Чиң династиясе
Türkçe: Çing Hanedanı
українська: Династія Цін
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: چىڭ سۇلالىسى
Vahcuengh: Cingciuz
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Thanh
文言:
吴语: 清朝
粵語: 大清
žemaitėška: Čing dinastėjė
中文: 清朝