("Cup of Solid Gold")
Qing empire, 1765
|•||1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895|
|•||10 October 1911|
|•||12 February 1912|
|•||1790||13,100,000 km2 (5,100,000 sq mi)|
|•||1880||11,500,000 km2 (4,400,000 sq mi)|
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (
The dynasty was founded by the
During the Qianlong reign (1735–96) the dynasty reached its apogee, but then began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the
After agreeing to sign the
|Five Dynasties and|
|Qing dynasty 1644–1912|
After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China" (中國, Zhōngguó; "Middle Kingdom"), and referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu (Dulimbai means "central" or "middle," gurun means "nation" or "state"). The emperors equated the lands of the Qing state (including present-day Northeast China, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas) as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, and rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China". They used both "China" and "Qing" to refer to their state in official documents, international treaties (as the Qing was known internationally as "China" or the "Chinese Empire") and foreign affairs, and "Chinese language" (Manchu: ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᠪᡝᡳᡨᡥᡝ Dulimbai gurun i bithe) included Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and "Chinese people" (中國之人 Zhōngguó zhī rén; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all subjects of the empire. In the Chinese-language versions of its treaties and its maps of the world, the Qing government used "Qing" and "China" interchangeably.
The dynasty was sometimes referred to as the "Manchu dynasty" in foreign language sources.