Qatar

State of Qatar
دولة قطر (Arabic)
Dawlat Qatar
Anthem: السلام الأميري
As-Salam al-Amiri  (transliteration)
Amiri Salute

Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.
Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.
Location of Qatar
Capital
and largest city
Doha
25°18′N 51°31′E / 25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.300; 51.517
Official languagesArabic
Other languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups (2015[1])11.6% Qatari
88.4% non-Qatari
Religion Islam
DemonymQatari
GovernmentUnitary constitutional monarchy
• Emir
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
• Deputy Emir
Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
LegislatureConsultative Assembly
Establishment
18 December 1878
• Declared independence

1 September 1971
• Independence from the United Kingdom

3 September 1971
Area
• Total
11,581 km2 (4,471 sq mi) (158th)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2017 estimate
2,641,669[2] (140th)
• 2010 census
1,699,435[3] (148th)
• Density
176/km2 (455.8/sq mi) (76th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$357.338 billion[4] (51st)
• Per capita
$128,702[4] (1st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$183.807 billion[4] (56th)
• Per capita
$66,202[4] (6th)
Gini (2007)41.1[5]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.856[6]
very high · 37th
CurrencyRiyal (QAR)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright[7]
Calling code+974
ISO 3166 codeQA
Internet TLD

Qatar (ɑːr/,[8] ɑːr/ (About this soundlisten), ər/ or ɑːr/ (About this soundlisten);[9] Arabic: قطرQatar [ˈqɑtˤɑr]; local vernacular pronunciation: [ˈɡɪtˤɑr]),[10][11] officially the State of Qatar (Arabic: دولة قطرDawlat Qatar), is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional or an absolute monarchy is disputed.[12][13][14][15][16][17] Its sole land border is with neighboring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby Bahrain.

In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates.[18] Islam is the official religion of Qatar.[19] The country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development.[20] Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.[21]

Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour.[22][23] In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring.[24][25][26] For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, and has been identified as a middle power.[27][28] Qatar is currently the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt, which began in June 2017.

Etymology

Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.[29][30] A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara.[30][31] The map also referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula.[32] The term 'Catara' (inhabitants, Cataraei)[33] was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which 'Katara' emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling.[32] Eventually, after several variations - 'Katr', 'Kattar' and 'Guttur' - the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name.[34]

In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced [ˈqɑtˤɑr], while in the local dialect it is [ˈɡitˤar].[10]

Other Languages
Acèh: Qatar
Адыгэбзэ: Къатар
адыгабзэ: Катар
Afrikaans: Katar
Alemannisch: Katar
አማርኛ: ኳታር
Ænglisc: Catar
العربية: قطر
aragonés: Qatar
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܛܪ
arpetan: Qatar
অসমীয়া: কাটাৰ
asturianu: Qatar
Avañe'ẽ: Katára
авар: КъатІар
azərbaycanca: Qətər
تۆرکجه: قطر
বাংলা: কাতার
Bân-lâm-gú: Qatar
башҡортса: Катар
беларуская: Катар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Катар
भोजपुरी: क़तर
Bikol Central: Qatar
български: Катар
Boarisch: Katar
བོད་ཡིག: ཁ་ཏར།
bosanski: Katar
brezhoneg: Katar
буряад: Катар
català: Qatar
Чӑвашла: Катар
Cebuano: Katar
čeština: Katar
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Qatar
chiShona: Qatar
chiTumbuka: Qatar
Cymraeg: Qatar
dansk: Qatar
davvisámegiella: Qatar
Deutsch: Katar
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޤަޠަރު
dolnoserbski: Katar
डोटेली: कतार
ཇོང་ཁ: ཀ་ཏར་
eesti: Katar
Ελληνικά: Κατάρ
español: Catar
Esperanto: Kataro
estremeñu: Catal
euskara: Qatar
eʋegbe: Qatar
فارسی: قطر
Fiji Hindi: Qatar
føroyskt: Katar
français: Qatar
Frysk: Katar
Gaeilge: Catar
Gaelg: Yn Chatar
Gagauz: Katar
Gàidhlig: Catar
galego: Qatar
Gĩkũyũ: Qatar
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कतार
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Qatar
한국어: 카타르
Hausa: Qatar
Hawaiʻi: Katala
հայերեն: Կատար
हिन्दी: क़तर
hornjoserbsce: Katar
hrvatski: Katar
Ido: Katar
Ilokano: Katar
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কাতার
Bahasa Indonesia: Qatar
Interlingue: Quatar
Ирон: Катар
íslenska: Katar
italiano: Qatar
Basa Jawa: Qatar
kalaallisut: Qatar
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕಟಾರ್
Kapampangan: Katar
ქართული: კატარი
kaszëbsczi: Katar
қазақша: Катар
kernowek: Katar
Kinyarwanda: Katari
Kiswahili: Qatar
коми: Катар
Kongo: Qatar
Kreyòl ayisyen: Katar
kurdî: Qeter
Кыргызча: Катар
لۊری شومالی: قأطأر
Latina: Quataria
latviešu: Katara
Lëtzebuergesch: Katar
лезги: Къатар
lietuvių: Kataras
Ligure: Qatar
Limburgs: Qatar
lingála: Katar
Lingua Franca Nova: Catar
Livvinkarjala: Katar
lumbaart: Qatar
magyar: Katar
मैथिली: कतार
македонски: Катар
Malagasy: Katara
മലയാളം: ഖത്തർ
Malti: Qatar
मराठी: कतार
მარგალური: კატარი
مازِرونی: قطر
Bahasa Melayu: Qatar
Baso Minangkabau: Qatar
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Qatar
монгол: Катар
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကာတာနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Qatar
Nederlands: Qatar
नेपाली: कतार
नेपाल भाषा: कतार
日本語: カタール
нохчийн: КъатӀар
Nordfriisk: Kataar
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kataa
norsk: Qatar
norsk nynorsk: Qatar
Novial: Katar
occitan: Qatar
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କତର
Oromoo: Kaataar
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qatar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਤਰ
पालि: कतार
پنجابی: قطر
Papiamentu: Catar
پښتو: قطر
Patois: Kata
Piemontèis: Qatar
Tok Pisin: Qatar
Plattdüütsch: Katar
polski: Katar
português: Catar
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qatar
qırımtatarca: Qatar
română: Qatar
Runa Simi: Qatar
русский: Катар
саха тыла: Катар
संस्कृतम्: कतार
Scots: Qatar
shqip: Katari
sicilianu: Qatar
සිංහල: කාටාර්
Simple English: Qatar
سنڌي: قطر
SiSwati: IKhathari
slovenčina: Katar (štát)
slovenščina: Katar
ślůnski: Katar
Soomaaliga: Qatar
کوردی: قەتەر
српски / srpski: Катар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Katar
Basa Sunda: Qatar
suomi: Qatar
svenska: Qatar
Tagalog: Qatar
தமிழ்: கத்தார்
Taqbaylit: Qaṭar
татарча/tatarça: Катар
తెలుగు: ఖతార్
tetun: Katár
тоҷикӣ: Қатар
Türkçe: Katar
Türkmençe: Katar
удмурт: Катар
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Qatar
українська: Катар
اردو: قطر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قاتار
Vahcuengh: Qatar
vèneto: Qatar
vepsän kel’: Katar
Tiếng Việt: Qatar
Volapük: Katarän
Võro: Katar
文言: 卡達國
West-Vlams: Qatar
Winaray: Qatar
Wolof: Kataar
吴语: 卡塔尔
ייִדיש: קאטאר
Yorùbá: Katar
粵語: 卡塔爾
Zazaki: Qeter
Zeêuws: Qatar
žemaitėška: Katars
中文: 卡塔尔