Punjabi language

Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ پنجابی
Punjabi example.svg
'Punjabi' written in Shahmukhi (top) and Gurmukhi (bottom) scripts
Pronunciationi/
Native toPunjab region
EthnicityPunjabis
Native speakers
Eastern Punjabi: 34 million (2011)[1]
Western Punjabi: 93 million (2015)[2]
Standard forms
Dialects
Gurmukhi
Perso-Arabic (Shahmukhi)
Punjabi Braille
Laṇḍā (historical)
Official status
Official language in
 Pakistan (Punjab)[3]
 India (Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh)
Language codes
ISO 639-1pa
ISO 639-2pan
ISO 639-3Either:
pan – Eastern Punjabi
pnb – Western Punjabi
Glottologpanj1256  Punjabi[4]
Linguasphere59-AAF-e
Punjabispeakers.png
Areas of the Indian Subcontinent where Punjabi is natively spoken
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Punjabi (i/;[5] Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pãjābī; Shahmukhi: پنجابی paṉjābī)[6] is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers worldwide. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnic group of the cultural region of Punjab. The Punjab extends from northwest India through eastern Pakistan.

As of 2015, Punjabi is the 10th most widely spoken language in the world.[7][8] It is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan,[3] the 11th most widely spoken language in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. In Canada, it is the fifth most-spoken native language, after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese. It has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, and the Netherlands.

Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone (that is, the way in which the pitch of the voice conveys meaning).[9][10][11] The Punjabi language is written in one of two alphabets: Shahmukhi or Gurmukhi. In the Punjab, both writing systems are used (a rare occurence called synchronic digraphia): Shahmukhi is used mainly by Punjabi Muslims, and Gurmukhi is used mainly by Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus.

History

Etymology

The word Punjabi has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors[12] of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means "Land of the Five Rivers".[13][14]. Panj is cognate with Sanskrit पञ्च (pañca) and Greek πέντε (pénte) "five", and "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit अप् (áp) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.

Origin

Tilla Jogian,district Jehlum,Punjab,Pakistan a hilltop associated with many Nath jogis(considered among compilers of earlier Punjabi works)

Punjabi developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit languages and later Apabhraṃśa (Sanskrit: अपभ्रंश; corruption or corrupted speech)[15] From 600 BC Sanskrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: प्राकृत prākṛta) collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendent of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century. By the 10th century, many Nath poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works.[16][17][17][18][18]

Arabic and Persian influence on Punjabi

Arabic and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.[19] The Persian language was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi.[20] Punjabi has more Persian and Arabic vocabulary than Bengali, Marathi, and Gujarati due to the proximity of the Punjab with western Asia.[21] It is noteworthy that the Hindustani language divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, and Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. Later, it was influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. However, in India, English words in the official language are more widespread than Hindi.[22]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pandjabi
አማርኛ: ፐንጃብኛ
العربية: لغة بنجابية
অসমীয়া: পঞ্জাবী ভাষা
azərbaycanca: Pəncab dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Punjab-gí
башҡортса: Пәнжәб теле
беларуская: Панджабі
भोजपुरी: पंजाबी भाषा
български: Панджабски език
brezhoneg: Pandjabeg
català: Panjabi
Чӑвашла: Панджаби
čeština: Paňdžábština
Cymraeg: Punjabi
dansk: Punjabi
Deutsch: Panjabi
español: Idioma panyabí
Esperanto: Panĝaba lingvo
euskara: Punjabera
Fiji Hindi: Panjabi bhasa
français: Pendjabi
Gàidhlig: Punjabi (cànan)
ગુજરાતી: પંજાબી ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Punjabi-ngî
한국어: 펀자브어
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পাঞ্জাবি ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Punjab
interlingua: Lingua panjabi
íslenska: Púndjabí
italiano: Lingua punjabi
עברית: פנג'אבי
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪಂಜಾಬಿ
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: پنجابی زَبان
қазақша: Панджаби
لۊری شومالی: زون پنجاوی
latviešu: Pandžabu valoda
lietuvių: Pandžabų kalba
македонски: Пенџапски јазик
მარგალური: პენჯაბური ნინა
مصرى: بنجابى
مازِرونی: پنجابی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Punjabi
монгол: Панжаб хэл
Nederlands: Punjabi
नेपाल भाषा: पञ्जाबी भाषा
norsk: Panjabi
norsk nynorsk: Panjabi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Panjobi
پنجابی: پنجابی
português: Língua panjabi
română: Limba punjabă
Runa Simi: Panyabi simi
русский: Панджаби
संस्कृतम्: पञ्जाबीभाषा
Simple English: Punjabi language
slovenčina: Pandžábčina
српски / srpski: Панџаби (језик)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pandžapski jezik
suomi: Pandžabi
svenska: Punjabi
తెలుగు: పంజాబీ భాష
Türkçe: Pencapça
українська: Пенджабська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پەنجاب تىلى
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Punjab
粵語: 頻渣別文
Zazaki: Pencabki
中文: 旁遮普語