In Egypt, Al-Azhar University opened in 975 AD as the second oldest university in the world. It was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University (1908), Alexandria University (1912), Assiut University (1928), Ain Shams University (1957), Helwan University (1959), Beni-Suef University (1963), Benha University (1965), Zagazig University (1978), Suez Canal University (1989), where tuition fees are totally subsidized by the government.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after successfully succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate. Then, the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose.
examples of Tunisian public universities:
- Carthage University, Carthage
- Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis
- Manouba University, Manouba
- Tunis El Manar University, Tunis
- Tunis University, Tunis
- Université Tunis Carthage
- University of Gabès, Gabès
- University of Gafsa, Gafsa
- University of Jendouba, Jendouba
- University of Kairouan, Kairouan
- University of Monastir, Monastir
- University of Sfax, Sfax
- University of Sousse, Sousse
In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin
In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government. They are also eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education.
South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university (providing theoretical and vocational training). Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.