Protozoa

  • clockwise from top left: blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; giardia muris, a parasitic flagellate; centropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; peridinium willei, a dinoflagellate; chaos carolinense, a naked amoebozoan; desmerella moniliformis, a choanoflagellate

    protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.[1][2] historically, the protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals", because they often possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, and lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae.[3][4] although the traditional practice of grouping protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy.

    in some systems of biological classification, protozoa is a high-level taxonomic group. when first introduced in 1818, protozoa was erected as a taxonomic class,[5] but in later classification schemes it was elevated to a variety of higher ranks, including phylum, subkingdom and kingdom. in a series of classifications proposed by thomas cavalier-smith and his collaborators since 1981, protozoa has been ranked as a kingdom.[6][7][8] the seven-kingdom scheme presented by ruggiero et al. in 2015, places eight phyla under kingdom protozoa: euglenozoa, amoebozoa, metamonada, choanozoa sensu cavalier-smith, loukozoa, percolozoa, microsporidia and sulcozoa.[9] notably, this kingdom excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, including the ciliates, dinoflagellates, foraminifera, and the parasitic apicomplexans, all of which are classified under kingdom chromista. kingdom protozoa, as defined in this scheme, does not form a natural group or clade, but a paraphyletic group or evolutionary grade, within which the members of fungi, animalia and chromista are thought to have evolved.[9]

  • history
  • characteristics
  • classification
  • ecology
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Clockwise from top left: Blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; Giardia muris, a parasitic flagellate; Centropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; Peridinium willei, a dinoflagellate; Chaos carolinense, a naked amoebozoan; Desmerella moniliformis, a choanoflagellate

Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.[1][2] Historically, the protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals", because they often possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, and lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae.[3][4] Although the traditional practice of grouping protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy.

In some systems of biological classification, Protozoa is a high-level taxonomic group. When first introduced in 1818, Protozoa was erected as a taxonomic class,[5] but in later classification schemes it was elevated to a variety of higher ranks, including phylum, subkingdom and kingdom. In a series of classifications proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and his collaborators since 1981, Protozoa has been ranked as a kingdom.[6][7][8] The seven-kingdom scheme presented by Ruggiero et al. in 2015, places eight phyla under Kingdom Protozoa: Euglenozoa, Amoebozoa, Metamonada, Choanozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith, Loukozoa, Percolozoa, Microsporidia and Sulcozoa.[9] Notably, this kingdom excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, including the ciliates, dinoflagellates, foraminifera, and the parasitic apicomplexans, all of which are classified under Kingdom Chromista. Kingdom Protozoa, as defined in this scheme, does not form a natural group or clade, but a paraphyletic group or evolutionary grade, within which the members of Fungi, Animalia and Chromista are thought to have evolved.[9]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Protozoen
العربية: أولي (كائن)
অসমীয়া: আদ্যপ্ৰাণী
asturianu: Protozóu
azərbaycanca: Protozoylar
беларуская: Прасцейшыя
български: Протозои
bosanski: Protozoa
català: Protozous
čeština: Prvoci
dansk: Protozoer
Deutsch: Protozoen
eesti: Ainuraksed
Ελληνικά: Πρωτόζωα
español: Protozoo
Esperanto: Protozoo
euskara: Protozoo
français: Protozoaire
Gaeilge: Prótasóin
Gaelg: Protosoa
galego: Protozoos
한국어: 원생동물
हिन्दी: प्रजीवगण
hrvatski: Praživotinje
Bahasa Indonesia: Protozoa
interlingua: Protozoa
íslenska: Frumdýr
italiano: Protozoa
עברית: פרוטוזואה
Jawa: Protozoa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pwotozoyè
Кыргызча: Жөнөкөйлөр
Latina: Protozoa
latviešu: Vienšūņi
lietuvių: Protozoa
Limburgs: Protozoa
magyar: Protozoa
македонски: Праживотни
Bahasa Melayu: Protozoa
Nederlands: Protozoa
日本語: 原生動物
Nordfriisk: Protozoa
norsk: Protozo
norsk nynorsk: Protozo
occitan: Protozoari
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪ੍ਰੋਟੋਜ਼ੋਆ
پنجابی: پروٹوزوا
Plattdüütsch: Protozoa
polski: Pierwotniaki
português: Protozoário
română: Protozoar
русский: Простейшие
Scots: Protozoa
Simple English: Protozoa
slovenčina: Prvoky
slovenščina: Praživali
српски / srpski: Праживотиње
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Protozoa
Sunda: Protozoa
svenska: Protozoer
Tagalog: Protozoa
తెలుగు: ప్రోటోజోవా
Türkçe: Protozoa
українська: Найпростіші
Winaray: Protozoa
吴语: 原生动物
粵語: 原生動物
中文: 原生動物