Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates.

Rationale

Amical protection

In amical protection, the terms are often very favorable for the protectorate. The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, dynastic, historical, or ethno-cultural ties) or countering a rival or enemy power (e.g., preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance). This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations; this, however, may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have similar use of them without the protector's strength.

Amical protection was frequently extended by the great powers to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance[ambiguous]. In the post-1815 period, non-Christian states (such as China's Qing dynasty) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states.

In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints".[1] Examples of microstates understood as modern protected states include Andorra, Bhutan,[2] Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Niue, the Cook Islands, and Palau.

Colonial protection

Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule. Occasionally, a protectorate was established by or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country which has its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces.

In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885 allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.

Foreign relations

In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power, so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own, but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation, in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.

Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Protektoraat
Alemannisch: Protektorat
asturianu: Protectoráu
azərbaycanca: Protektorat
беларуская: Пратэктарат
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пратэктарат
български: Протекторат
català: Protectorat
Чӑвашла: Протекториат
čeština: Protektorát
Deutsch: Protektorat
Ελληνικά: Προτεκτοράτο
español: Protectorado
Esperanto: Protektorato
euskara: Protektoratu
français: Protectorat
galego: Protectorado
한국어: 보호국
հայերեն: Պրոտեկտորատ
hrvatski: Protektorat
Bahasa Indonesia: Protektorat
italiano: Protettorato
къарачай-малкъар: Протекторат
қазақша: Протекторат
Kiswahili: Nchi lindwa
Ladino: Protektorado
latviešu: Protektorāts
Lëtzebuergesch: Protektorat
македонски: Протекторат
მარგალური: პროტექტორატი
Bahasa Melayu: Negeri naungan
Nederlands: Protectoraat
日本語: 保護国
norsk nynorsk: Protektorat
occitan: Protectorat
polski: Protektorat
português: Protetorado
română: Protectorat
русский: Протекторат
Simple English: Protectorate
slovenčina: Protektorát
slovenščina: Protektorat
српски / srpski: Протекторат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Protektorat
svenska: Protektorat
Türkçe: Himaye
українська: Протекторат
Tiếng Việt: Bảo hộ
中文: 保护国