Prohibition

A police raid confiscating illegal alcohol, in Elk Lake, Canada, in 1925.

Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced. Drugs were a major factor in alcohol prohibition.

History

The Drunkard's Progress: A lithograph by Nathaniel Currier supporting the temperance movement, January 1846.

The earliest records of prohibition of alcohol date to the Xia Dynasty (ca. 2070 BC–ca. 1600 BC) in China. Yu the Great, the first ruler of the Xia Dynasty, prohibited alcohol throughout the kingdom. [1] It was legalized again after his death, during the reign of his son Qi. Another record was in the Code of Hammurabi (ca.1772 BCE) specifically banning the selling of beer for money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they shall throw her into the water." [2]

In the Western world, the great moral issue of the Nineteenth Century was slavery, but once that battle was won, social moralists turned to their next targets, one of which was prohibition. In the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. [3] Prohibition movements in the West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly empowered women as part of the political process strongly supporting policies that curbed alcohol consumption. [4] [5]

The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries:

  • 1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, [6] and for shorter periods in other provinces in Canada
  • 1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands; limited private imports from Denmark were allowed from 1928
  • 1914 to 1925 [7] in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
  • 1915 to 1933 in Iceland (beer was still prohibited until 1989) [8]
  • 1916 to 1927 in Norway (fortified wine and beer were also prohibited from 1917 to 1923)
  • 1919 in the Hungarian Soviet Republic, March 21 to August 1; called szesztilalom
  • 1919 to 1932 in Finland (called kieltolaki, "ban law")
  • 1920 to 1933 in the United States

After several years, prohibition failed in North America and elsewhere. Rum-running became widespread and organized crime took control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition generally came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, although a few locations continued prohibition for many more years.

In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned; in Pakistan and Iran it is illegal with exceptions. [9]

Other Languages
العربية: منع الكحول
Bân-lâm-gú: Kìm-chiú-lēng
беларуская: Сухі закон
български: Сух режим
català: Llei seca
čeština: Prohibice
Deutsch: Prohibition
español: Ley seca
euskara: Lege lehor
français: Prohibition
한국어: 금주법
hrvatski: Prohibicija
íslenska: Bannár
עברית: חוק יובש
қазақша: Құрғақ заң
Lëtzebuergesch: Prohibitioun
lietuvių: Prohibicija
magyar: Szesztilalom
日本語: 禁酒令
polski: Prohibicja
português: Lei seca
română: Prohibiție
русский: Сухой закон
slovenčina: Prohibícia
slovenščina: Prohibicija
српски / srpski: Прохибиција
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Prohibicija
suomi: Kieltolaki
Türkçe: İçki yasağı
українська: Сухий закон
žemaitėška: Pruohėbėcėjė
中文: 禁酒令