Privatization (also spelled privatisation) can mean different things including moving something from the public sector into the private sector. It is also sometimes used as a synonym for deregulation when a heavily regulated private company or industry becomes less regulated. Government functions and services may also be privatized; in this case, private entities are tasked with the implementation of government programs or performance of government services that had previously been the purview of state-run agencies. Some examples include revenue collection, law enforcement, and prison management.[1]

Another definition is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise or municipally owned corporation to private investors. In the case of a for-profit company, the shares are then no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity; in the case the partial or full sale of a state-owned enterprise or municipally owned corporation to private owners shares may be traded in the public market for the first time, or for the first time since an enterprise's previous nationalization. The second such type of privatization is the demutualization of a mutual organization, cooperative, or public-private partnership in order to form a joint-stock company.[2]


The Economist magazine introduced the term "privatization" (alternatively "privatisation" or "reprivatization" after the German Reprivatisierung) during the 1930s when it covered Nazi Germany's economic policy.[3][4] It is not clear if the magazine coincidentally invented the word in English or if the term is a loanword from the same expression in German, where it has been in use since the 19th century. [5]

Other Languages
العربية: خصخصة
azərbaycanca: Özəlləşdirmə
беларуская: Прыватызацыя
български: Приватизация
čeština: Privatizace
Cymraeg: Preifateiddio
eesti: Erastamine
español: Privatización
Esperanto: Privatigo
euskara: Pribatizazio
français: Privatisation
한국어: 민영화
हिन्दी: निजीकरण
Bahasa Indonesia: Privatisasi
íslenska: Einkavæðing
italiano: Privatizzazione
עברית: הפרטה
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಖಾಸಗೀಕರಣ
ქართული: პრივატიზება
Latina: Privatizatio
latviešu: Privatizācija
lietuvių: Privatizacija
lumbaart: Privatizzazion
македонски: Приватизација
मराठी: खाजगीकरण
Bahasa Melayu: Penswastaan
Nederlands: Privatisering
日本語: 民営化
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Denatsionalizatsiya
polski: Prywatyzacja
português: Privatização
română: Privatizare
русский: Приватизация
Simple English: Privatization
slovenčina: Privatizácia
slovenščina: Denacionalizacija
српски / srpski: Приватизација
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Privatizacija
svenska: Privatisering
татарча/tatarça: Хосусыйлаштыру
Türkçe: Özelleştirme
українська: Приватизація
اردو: نجکاری
Tiếng Việt: Tư nhân hóa
中文: 私有化