Prime Minister of Japan

Prime Minister of Japan
内閣総理大臣
Emblem of the Prime Minister of Japan.svg
Official emblem
of the Prime Minister
Shinzō Abe Official.jpg
Incumbent
Shinzō Abe

since December 26, 2012
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceKantei
NominatorNational Diet
AppointerHIM The Emperor
Term lengthSince 1947: Four years or fewer.[a]
Inaugural holderItō Hirobumi
Formation22 December 1885; 132 years ago (1885-12-22)
Websitewww.kantei.go.jp
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
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The Prime Minister (内閣総理大臣, Naikaku-sōri-daijin, or Shushō (首相)) is the head of government and chief executive of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. He is the chairman of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of (or the Presidency over) the Cabinet.

History

Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. Originally, a Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period. It described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor; although in practice, real power was often held elsewhere, such as in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, who intermarried with the Imperial Family in the Heian period, or by the ruling shōgun. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration.

Under this system, the Daijō-daijin (太政大臣, Chancellor of the Realm)[1] was the head of the Daijō-kan (Department of State), the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until briefly under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871. The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister,[2] four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly.[3][4] It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947.

To date, 62 people have served this position. The current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, and the 5th longest serving Prime Minister to date.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Yaponiya baş naziri
Bahasa Indonesia: Perdana Menteri Jepang
Bahasa Melayu: Perdana Menteri Jepun
Nederlands: Premier van Japan
Simple English: Prime Minister of Japan
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Premijer Japana